- Chief Black Hawk (1767-1838)
- Influence of European Culture
- Conflict Between Cultures
- European Explorers Meet Early Iowans
- Spanish Meet Indians
- Land Ownership
- Indian Agents
- Sac and Mesquakie Move to Iowa
- Only Sioux Remained in Iowa
- Massacre at Spirit Lake
- Mesquakies Return to Iowa
- Mesquakie Maintain Culture
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Sac and Mesquakie Move to Iowa
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In the early 1800s the tribes that occupied much of eastern Iowa were the Sauk and the Mesquakie. The Mesquakie were mistakenly referred to by one of their clan names, Fox, by the French in 1655 and there after were called Fox throughout recorded history. Although they were two separate tribes, they became known as the Sauk and Fox, and were treated by the Government as if they were one. The earliest French explorers found the Mesquakie tribe living in the Great Lakes region, on what is now the Michigan Peninsula where they were one of the most powerful tribes. Eventually both they and the Sauk moved to the Green Bay area of Wisconsin following the fur trade. By the time the white frontier had reached Illinois, tribal warfare had pushed the Sauk and the Mesquakie into western Illinois and eastern Iowa. They considered much of this land to be their permanent homeland, but soon were forced to move once more.
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