- Chief Black Hawk (1767-1838)
- Influence of European Culture
- Conflict Between Cultures
- European Explorers Meet Early Iowans
- Spanish Meet Indians
- Land Ownership
- Indian Agents
- Sac and Mesquakie Move to Iowa
- Only Sioux Remained in Iowa
- Massacre at Spirit Lake
- Mesquakies Return to Iowa
- Mesquakie Maintain Culture
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Only Sioux Remained in Iowa
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By 1848 the Sauk, Mesquakies, Winnebagoes and Pottawattamie had all left Iowa for reservations. The only Indians left in the state were the Sioux in northwestern Iowa. Anxious pioneers, who built their homesteads far ahead of established communities, found themselves in danger from roving bands of Sioux who still considered northwestern Iowa part of their hunting ground.
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