Iowa Public Television

 

The 2006 State Spending Plan

posted on February 28, 2005

Borg: CRAFTING A BUDGET: TESTY RHETORIC AT THE IOWA STATEHOUSE OVER THE 2006 STATE SPENDING PLAN. WE'LL QUESTION APPROPRIATIONS CHAIR BILL DIX AND BOB DVORSKY ON THIS EDITION OF "IOWA PRESS."


FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY "FRIENDS," THE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION FOUNDATION; BY THE IOWA BANKERS ASSOCIATION… FOR PERSONAL, BUSINESS, AND COMMERCIAL NEEDS, IOWA BANKS HELP IOWANS REACH THEIR FINANCIAL GOALS; BY THE ASSOCIATED GENERAL CONTRACTORS OF IOWA, THE PUBLIC'S PARTNER IN BUILDING IOWA'S HIGHWAY, BRIDGE, AND MUNICIPAL UTILITY INFRASTRUCTURE; AND BY CAPITOL RESOURCES, INC., LOCATED IN BROOKLYN, IOWA; AND BY NICOLE SCHLINGER AND ERIC LANGE INDIVIDUALLY, FUND-RAISING AND COMMUNICATION SERVICES FOR MAJOR CAMPAIGNS SINCE 1996.

ON STATEWIDE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION, THIS IS THE FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 25 EDITION OF "IOWA PRESS." HERE IS DEAN BORG.

Borg: LAST WEEK, YOU MIGHT RECALL, WE BROUGHT TO THE "IOWA PRESS" TABLE THE CHAIRMEN OF THE LEGISLATURE'S WAYS AND MEANS OR TAX WRITING COMMITTEES. REPRESENTATIVE JAMIE VAN FOSSEN OF DAVENPORT AND SENATOR JOE BOLKCOM OF IOWA CITY PROVIDED INSIGHT ON HOW THE LEGISLATORS INTEND TO RAISE REVENUE TO FUND THE STATE'S BUDGET. WELL, TODAY WE TURN TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE BUDGET EQUATION, AND THAT'S WHERE THE MONEY IS SPENT OR, IN GOVERNMENT TERMS, WHERE IT'S APPROPRIATED. REPRESENTATIVE BILL DIX, A REPUBLICAN FROM SHELL ROCK, CHAIRS THE APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE IN THE IOWA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, AND DEMOCRATIC SENATOR BOB DVORSKY OF CORALVILLE COCHAIRS THE SENATE COMMITTEE. GENTLEMEN, WELCOME TO "IOWA PRESS."

Dvorsky: THANK YOU.

Dix: PLEASURE TO BE HERE.

Borg: ALSO WITH US HERE AT THE TABLE: "DES MOINES REGISTER" POLITICAL COLUMNIST DAVID YEPSEN AND "ASSOCIATE PRESS" SENIOR POLITICAL WRITER MIKE GLOVER.

Glover: SENATOR DVORSKY, LET'S START WITH YOU. LAST WEEK REPUBLICANS IN THE HOUSE ANNOUNCED A SERIES OF BUDGET TARGETS, WHAT THEY'RE GOING TO SPEND, BASED ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THE LEGISLATURE WILL NOT INCREASE THE CIGARETTE TAX. IS THAT THE OPENING OFFER IN THE BUDGET DEBATE, OR IS THAT THE FINAL ANSWER?

Dvorsky: NO, I REALLY THINK THAT'S THE OPENING OFFER. THAT'S THE HOUSE REPUBLICAN TARGETS. I THINK IN THE SENATE, I'M GOING TO BE WORKING WITH SENATOR ANGELO, AND HOPEFULLY WE CAN PUT TOGETHER JOINT DEMOCRATIC/REPUBLICAN TARGETS IN THE IOWA SENATE. WE'RE 25/25. YOU NEED 26 TO PASS ANYTHING. WE'RE GOING TO BE BIPARTISAN WITH OUR TARGETS IN THE IOWA SENATE.

Glover: SO AS FAR AS YOU'RE CONCERNED, THE OPTION OF INCREASING THE CIGARETTE TAX IS STILL A LIVE ROUND.

Dvorsky: AS SOMEBODY SAID, EVERYTHING IS LIVE UNTIL THE GAVEL FALLS IN APRIL OR MAY OR JUNE OR WHENEVER.

Glover: DON'T GO THERE. [ LAUGHTER ] REPRESENTATIVE DIX, LET ME TAKE THE SAME QUESTION TO YOU. DO YOU CONSIDER THE SPENDING TARGETS, BASED ON THE ASSUMPTION OF NO CIGARETTE TAX INCREASE THAT YOU ANNOUNCED LAST WEEK, TO BE THE END OF THAT DEBATE?

Dix: WELL, YOU KNOW, I THINK THAT THERE WILL CONTINUE TO BE DEBATES AS WE MOVE THROUGH THE LEGISLATURE. BUT AS I LOOK AT MY RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE BUDGET, WE TRY TO ANALYZE AND DETERMINE WHAT OUR PRIORITIES ARE. AS WE DETERMINE WHAT THOSE ARE, WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT WE HAVE FUNDING FOR OUR COMMITMENTS TO K-12 EDUCATION WITH THE 4-PERCENT ALLOWABLE GROWTH. WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT WE'RE FUNDING THE POOR AND THE VULNERABLE IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM, IN MEDICAID. AND WE'LL BE FUNDING THAT AT THE GOVERNOR'S LEVEL OF $129 MILLION. ON TOP OF THAT, WE BELIEVE THAT IT'S TIME THAT WE ALSO SET ASIDE RESOURCES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHER PREPARATION, EARLY CHILDHOOD INITIATIVES THAT THE GOVERNOR HAS ALSO HIGHLIGHTED AND OUTLINED. AND WE ARE ALLOCATING ABOUT $40 MILLION IN INCREASES THERE.

Glover: LET ME TURN YOUR DECISION ON ITS EAR JUST A SECOND. YOU DECIDED IN THE HOUSE AMONG HOUSE REPUBLICANS NOT TO INCREASE THE CIGARETTE TAX TO LIVE UP TO A CAMPAIGN PROMISE TO INCREASE NO TAX. WHAT'S WRONG WITH INCREASING THE CIGARETTE TAX? MOST POLLS I'VE SEEN SHOW A MAJORITY OF VOTERS FAVOR IT.

Dix: WELL, I DON'T KNOW THAT IT'S NECESSARILY A CAMPAIGN PROMISE NOT TO RAISE A TAX, BUT I THINK THE APPROPRIATE QUESTION IS, IS THERE ENOUGH MONEY IN STATE GOVERNMENT TODAY TO FUND OUR PRIORITIES. THIS BUDGET PROPOSES 4-PERCENT ADDITIONAL RESOURCES WITH EXISTING REVENUES. AND WE'RE FUNDING WHAT I BELIEVE TO BE THE HIGHLIGHTED PRIORITIES, THE SHARED PRIORITIES OF BOTH PARTIES.

Glover: SENATOR DVORSKY, LET'S TAKE THE QUESTION AND SLIDE IT ON ITS EAR TO YOU. TAKE MR. DIX'S ARGUMENT. IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO HAVE A TAX TO BALANCE THE BUDGET, WHY DO IT?

Dvorsky: I THINK THAT'S CORRECT. I THINK THAT SENATE DEMOCRATS VIEW TAXES AS A LAST RESORT. I THINK SOME OF US -- AND I INTRODUCED THE BILL TO RAISE THE CIGARETTE TAX BY A DOLLAR IN A BIPARTISAN FASHION WITH SENATOR MULDER, FOR EXAMPLE, WHO IS FROM SIOUX COUNTY. NOW, IF YOU KNOW SIOUX COUNTY, IT'S A LONG WAYS FROM JOHNSON COUNTY AND THE PHILOSOPHY IS SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT -- A LOT DIFFERENT. SO THE DOLLAR IS MORE BASED ON THE HEALTH SITUATION, THAT WE REALLY NEED TO CUT DOWN ON SMOKING IN THIS STATE. I MEAN WE SPEND $235 MILLION JUST FOR MEDICAID FOR SMOKING RELATED SICKNESS AND ILLNESS, AND WE ONLY GET $88 MILLION FROM THE CIGARETTE TAX. THAT'S $150-MILLION HOLE WE'RE IN DEALING WITH THOSE SITUATIONS, SO I THINK RAISING CIGARETTE TAX A GOOD AMOUNT WOULD ACTUALLY HELP TO MAKE HEALTHIER IOWANS AND CERTAINLY WOULD HELP US TO MOVE FORWARD.

Yepsen: SENATOR DVORSKY, I RECALL SENATOR GRONSTAL, YOUR PARTY'S LEADER, PRIOR TO THE CAMPAIGN SAYING DEMOCRATS WILL LOOK AT TAX INCREASES AS A LAST RESORT. ISN'T IT A GOOD IDEA FOR POLITICIANS TO KEEP THEIR PROMISES?

Dvorsky: YES. I MEAN I THINK WE ARE LOOKING AT IT AS A LAST RESORT. WE'RE GOING TO MOVE FORWARD WITH JOINT TARGETS IN THE SENATE AND GO FROM THERE.

Yepsen: ALL RIGHT. GOVERNOR VILSACK, IN HIS REELECTION CAMPAIGN, PROMISED NO TAX INCREASES. NOW HE'S NOT RUNNING AGAIN BUT HE'S ASKING YOU TO RAISE THE TAX. DOES THAT MAKE IT MORE DIFFICULT IN THE LEGISLATURE TO APPROVE THE TAX INCREASE?

Dvorsky: IF THE GOVERNOR CHANGED HIS MIND ON MAKING A PROMISE?

Yepsen: RIGHT. HE'S BREAKING A CAMPAIGN PROMISE THAT HE SAID NO TAX INCREASE; NOW HE SAYS DO THAT. HE'S NOT RUNNING AGAIN BUT YOUR PEOPLE ARE.

Dvorsky: I THINK IT BOILS DOWN TO WHAT EACH INDIVIDUAL PERSON IN THE HOUSE AND SENATE REALLY, YOU KNOW, WHAT THEY CAMPAIGNED ON, WHAT THEIR VALUES ARE, WHAT THEIR PHILOSOPHY IS.

Yepsen: REPRESENTATIVE DIX, SAME QUESTION. ARE REPUBLICANS IN THE HOUSE SIMPLY KEEPING THE CAMPAIGN PROMISE NOT TO RAISE TAXES?

Dix: WELL, I THINK REPUBLICANS HAVE ALWAYS STOOD FOR MAKING SURE THAT WE PROPOSE BUDGETS THAT ARE RESPONSIBLE AND SUSTAINABLE, AND THAT IS THE POINT. I HAVEN'T PERSONALLY ENGAGED THE DISCUSSION ABOUT THE POLICY OF WHETHER OR NOT A CIGARETTE TAX IS THE RIGHT THING TO DO. AND I THINK THAT'S WHAT A LOT OF IOWANS ARE THINKING ABOUT. BUT THE REAL POINT IS -- AND WE'VE BEEN PUSHED INTO THINKING THIS SO FAR IN THIS LEGISLATURE -- IS THAT IN ORDER TO FUND THE PRIORITIES, YOU HAVE TO RAISE A TAX. AND THAT SIMPLY ISN'T THE CASE.

Yepsen: SENATOR DVORSKY, WHAT DO LAWMAKERS WANT THE TAX TO DO. DO YOU WANT THE TAX TO RAISE MONEY, OR DO YOU WANT THE TAX TO KEEP PEOPLE FROM SMOKING? IT SEEMS TO ME THAT AT SOME POINT, THOSE TWO GOALS COME INTO CONFLICT.

Dvorsky: I THINK IT'S A BALANCE. I MEAN, I'M PRIMARILY INTERESTED -- MY DISTRICT IS HEAVILY INTO HEALTH, I MEAN UNIVERSITY OF IOWA HOSPITALS AND CLINICS AND OTHER HOSPITALS AND THAT. WE HAVE A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO WORK IN THE HEALTH FIELD AND, CLEARLY, IT'S A HEALTH-RELATED SITUATION AND THEY REALLY WANT TO RAISE THE TAX JUST TO STOP PEOPLE FROM SMOKING AND STOP -- IT'S LIKE 4,000 PEOPLE DIE EVERY YEAR IN IOWA FROM SMOKING, SO CLEARLY, THAT'S OUR IDEA. BUT ALSO, IT DOES GENERATE REVENUE. SO IT'S A BALANCE LIKE ANYTHING ELSE. I THINK IT'S A BALANCE ON THE HEALTH ASPECTS AND THE REVENUE GENERATING ASPECTS.

Borg: WELL, LET ME ASK YOU, THEN, SENATOR DVORSKY, WHAT DO YOU LOSE, DO YOU THINK, IF THAT CIGARETTE TAX IS NOT CHANGED THIS YEAR? WHAT DOES IOWA LOSE BY NOT INCREASING THE TAX?

Dvorsky: I THINK IT'S A SITUATION WHERE IT REALLY IS NEEDED TO MAKE MORE HEALTHY IOWANS. IF YOU TALK TO SOME OF THE DOCTORS AT UNIVERSITY HOSPITALS, ESPECIALLY ONE OF THE CANCER DOCTORS I TALKED TO, HE SAYS: RAISE THE TAX; I DON'T CARE IF YOU THROW THE MONEY IN THE IOWA RIVER; IT'S IMPORTANT WE RAISE THE TAX. THAT WILL CUT DOWN ON THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE SMOKING, ESPECIALLY TEEN SMOKING -- THEY HAVE STATISTICS THAT SHOW THAT -- AND IT WILL MAKE THE OVERALL STATE HEALTHIER.

Borg: SO FOR A HEALTH REASON ENTIRELY. AND YOU SAY WE DON'T NEED THE MONEY, BUT DO YOU SUBSCRIBE, REPRESENTATIVE DIX, TO THE HEALTH ASPECT?

Dix: WELL, I THINK ONE SHOULD ASK THE QUESTION IF WE'RE RAISING IT FOR THE HEALTH ASPECT, WHY IS A DOLLAR APPROPRIATE. PERHAPS $2, $3, OR MORE IS APPROPRIATE. IF OUR TRUE GOAL THROUGH THAT POLICY IS TO REDUCE SMOKING, THAT OUGHT TO BE THE CONSIDERATION.

Glover: REPRESENTATIVE DIX, THE REPUBLICANS IN THE HOUSE SAY THEY HAVE FOUND THE MONEY TO FUND SOME PRIORITIES FOR THE BUDGET YEAR YOU'RE WORKING ON RIGHT NOW WITHOUT A CIGARETTE TAX INCREASE. THE LAST I CHECKED, I DON'T THINK HEALTH COSTS ARE GOING TO STOP GOING UP. I DON'T THINK PRESCRIPTION DRUG COSTS ARE GOING TO STOP GOING UP. ARE IN FACT YOU PUTTING YOURSELF IN A SITUATION WHERE YOU'RE GOING TO FACE THE SAME DEBATE NEXT YEAR IN AN ELECTION YEAR WHEN MAKING THESE KIND OF CHOICES THAT WILL BE EVEN MORE DIFFICULT?

Dix: THAT'S AN EXCELLENT QUESTION. AND I THINK AS WE CONSTRUCTED OUR BUDGET PROPOSAL THIS YEAR, IT IS A RESPONSIBLE PROPOSAL THAT IS LOOKING AT JUST MORE THAN ONE YEAR. WE'RE LOOKING AT NEXT YEAR ALSO. SO I BELIEVE THAT THE STEPS THAT WE'RE TAKING AND THAT WE'RE SEEING WITH INCREASED REVENUE, WE'LL ABLE TO MEET THOSE COMMITMENTS NEXT YEAR. THE THING THAT PEOPLE FORGET ABOUT MEDICAID IS THAT THE REASON WE'RE SEEING THE LARGEST PROBLEM RIGHT NOW IN OUR MEDICAID BUDGET IS HOW WE FUNDED IT OVER THE LAST FEW YEARS USING ONE-TIME MONEY. YES, THERE'S BEEN GROWTH IN THOSE EXPENDITURES, BUT THEY'RE NOT GROWTH THAT'S UNSUSTAINABLE. SO I THINK THIS YEAR WE'RE STARTING TO GET OUR FEET UNDER US ONCE, AND THAT'S GOOD. BUT AS WE LOOK TO THE FUTURE, AS LONG AS WE DON'T OVERSPEND, I THINK WE CAN MEET THOSE --

Glover: AND THE BUDGET PROPOSAL THAT YOU ISSUED LAST WEEK USES SOME MONEY FROM THE ENDING BALANCE, USES SOME MONEY FROM SOME TRUST FUNDS. YOU'RE DRAINING SOME OF THESE FUNDS. WHAT ABOUT THE ARGUMENT YOU'RE USING THAT ONE-TIME MONEY ALL OVER AGAIN?

Dix: WELL, WE WILL USE SOME ONE-TIME MONEY THIS YEAR. AGAIN, I DON'T THINK YOU CAN REPAIR THE POLICIES OF THE PREVIOUS LEGISLATURES, WHICH MANY OF US HAVE BEEN CRITICAL AND MYSELF BEING ONE, THAT WE'VE SPENT MORE THAN WE SHOULD.

Glover: AS I RECALL, YOU WERE CHAIRMAN OF THE APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE IN THE LAST LEGISLATURE.

Dix: MM-HMM, THAT'S TRUE. AND I WAS CRITICAL OF IT. I DID SUPPORT IT IN THE END BECAUSE WE HAVE TO BE REASONABLE. AND I THINK THOSE RESOURCES WERE SET ASIDE FOR A PURPOSE. THEY WERE THERE SO THAT WHEN REVENUES WERE SHORT, WE'D HAVE THE ABILITY TO GO BACK AND SPEND SOME IN DAYS WHEN IT'S NOT SO HEALTHY.

Glover: SENATOR DVORSKY, THE SAME QUESTION TO YOU. THE BUDGET PROPOSAL HAS BEEN FLOATED FROM THE HOUSE, WHICH SEEMS TO BE, AT THIS MOMENT, THE BUDGET PROPOSAL THAT MANY PEOPLE ARE WORKING FROM. IS IT IRRESPONSIBLE BY USING SOME OF THAT ONE-TIME MONEY?

Dvorsky: I DON'T KNOW IF YOU CAN SAY IT'S IRRESPONSIBLE. IT'S ONE WAY TO DEAL WITH THE BUDGET. WE ASKED AUDITOR VAUDT TO COME TO OUR COMMITTEE -- TO THE SENATE APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE AND EXPLAIN ALL THE SITUATIONS THAT HE'S CONCERNED ABOUT, AND I THINK WE NEED TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT THOSE THINGS. I THINK IN THE END THE BUDGET IS ADOPTED IN THE IOWA LEGISLATURE. AND THERE PROBABLY WILL BE SOME ONE-TIME MONEY, BUT I THINK WE NEED TO BE AWARE OF IT AND START MOVING AWAY FROM ONE-TIME MONEY.

Yepsen: LET'S TALK ABOUT AUDITOR VAUDT FOR A MOMENT HERE, SENATOR. HE'S BEEN VERY CRITICAL OF BOTH THE REPUBLICAN LEGISLATURE AND THE DEMOCRATIC GOVERNOR. LAST WEEK HE SAID FOR EIGHT YEARS THIS STATE HAS SPENT MORE THAN IT'S COLLECTED IN REVENUES, AND YOU'VE DONE THAT BY GOING IN AND GRABBING A LOT OF THESE FUNDS.

Yepsen: SENATOR, DO YOU ENVISION FASHIONING A BUDGET THIS YEAR THAT PUTS A STOP TO THAT?

Dvorsky: I THINK WE WANT TO HAVE A GOOD, HONEST BUDGET THAT DOES THE BEST WE CAN THAT FUNDS OUR PRIORITIES.

Yepsen: THAT DOESN'T ANSWER MY QUESTION.

Dvorsky: I WON'T SAY THAT WE AREN'T GOING TO DO ONE-TIME MONEY. WE MAY DO ONE-TIME MONEY, BUT I THINK WE NEED TO START MOVING IN THE DIRECTION OF NOT SPENDING MORE THAN WE TAKE IN AND ALSO DEALING WITH OUR PRIORITIES.

Yepsen: MR. DIX, SAME QUESTION. WILL YOU DEVELOP A BUDGET THAT NO LONGER SPENDS MORE THAN YOU COLLECT IN REVENUE?

Dix: DAVID, THE BUDGET THAT WE HAVE PRESENTED IS A RESPONSIBLE BUDGET. RIGHT NOW REVENUES COMING INTO THE STATE ARE INCREASING AT MORE THAN 7 PERCENT. THIS IS A 4-PERCENT INCREASE. WE ARE ADDRESSING THE CONCERNS THAT THE AUDITOR HAS LAID OUT AND EXPRESSED, AND RIGHTLY SO. WE ARE REPAYING -- IN THIS PROPOSAL, WE WERE REPAYING FUNDS THAT HAVE BEEN BORROWED FROM IN THE PAST.

Yepsen: EXCUSE ME, MR. DIX, YOU'RE REPAYING SOME OF THE FUNDS THAT YOU'VE BORROWED FROM IN THE PAST. I THINK YOU ALSO PLAN TO WRITE OFF ABOUT A BILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF FUNDS THAT YOU BORROWED FROM, AND NOW YOU'RE SAYING YOU'RE NOT GOING TO PAY THEM BACK. WHY IS THAT?

Dix: WELL, THE NUMBER ONE FUND THAT WE THINK THAT SIMPLY NEEDS TO JUST BE ACCEPTED, WE JUST DON'T HAVE THE RESOURCES FOR, AND THAT'S THE TOBACCO ENDOWMENT. IT WAS A NICE IDEA AT THE TIME TO SET UP A ONE-BILLION-DOLLAR FUND, BUT TODAY TAXPAYERS, DAVID, SHOULDN'T BE ASKED TO COME FORWARD WITH A BILLION-DOLLAR FUND. IN THE SITUATION THAT WE'RE IN, IT'S JUST NEVER GOING TO HAPPEN.

Yepsen: EXCUSE ME, MR. DIX, CAN I GET SOME OF THAT ACTION ON MY CREDIT CARD, WHERE I TAKE MONEY THAT I'VE BORROWED AND THEN ALL OF A SUDDEN SAY I'M NOT GOING TO PAY THIS BACK. ISN'T THAT WHAT THE LEGISLATURE IS DOING?

Dix: WELL, LET'S REMEMBER WHAT THE MONEY WAS LARGELY. IT WAS MONEY THAT THE STATE RECEIVED FROM THE TOBACCO SETTLEMENT. AND USING THOSE RESOURCES TO PAY FOR OUR MEDICAID EXPENSES DURING THOSE TIMES, I THINK WAS AN APPROPRIATE USE OF THOSE DOLLARS.

Glover: MR. DIX, LET'S LOOK AT SOME OF THE DETAILS OF THE BUDGET PLAN THAT YOU FOLKS HAVE PUT ON THE TABLE. YOU SAY THAT YOU'RE FUNDING YOUR PRIORITIES BUT, IN FACT, YOU'RE FUNDING A LOT OF THOSE AT A SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER LEVEL THAN GOVERNOR VILSACK HAS ASKED. FOR EXAMPLE, YOU'RE PUTTING AN ADDITIONAL $40 MILLION INTO EDUCATION OVERALL; AND THE GOVERNOR ASKED FOR ABOUT $129 MILLION FOR EDUCATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD, HIGHER TEACHER PAY, AND FOR THE STATE'S BOARD OF REGENTS TO HELP HOLD TUITION DOWN. AREN'T YOU, IN FACT, UNDERFUNDING THOSE PRIORITIES?

Dix: WELL, I THINK YOU NEED TO REMEMBER, ESPECIALLY AS YOU LOOK AT EARLY CHILDHOOD, WE SPEND OVER $200 MILLION TODAY ON EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION. OUR BUDGET PROPOSALS SPEND A $12-MILLION INCREASE ON TOP OF THAT. YOU NEED TO ASK THE QUESTION, AT WHAT POINT IS IT ENOUGH. THIS HAS 4-PERCENT MORE MONEY IN OUR BUDGET THIS YEAR, AND I FIND IT A LITTLE BIT INTERESTING. IT'S SORT OF A SITUATION I'M CAUGHT BETWEEN A ROCK AND A HARD PLACE. IF WE SPEND 4-PERCENT MONEY, IT'S NOT ENOUGH ON ONE HAND, BUT ON THE OTHER HAND, WE'RE SPENDING ONE-TIME MONEY THAT SHOULDN'T BE SPENT. I THINK THE POINT IS, IS THAT THIS IS REASONABLE, IT'S SUSTAINABLE, AND WE TOUCH ON ALL OF THOSE KEY PRIORITIES.

Yepsen: THERE'S A DIFFERENT -- THERE'S ANOTHER ALTERNATIVE HERE AND THAT'S FINDING NEW WAYS OF DOING THINGS. THE GOVERNOR HAS GOT A NEW BUDGETING SYSTEM WHERE HE'S TRYING TO PURCHASE FOR RESULTS. HOW DO HOUSE REPUBLICANS FEEL ABOUT TRYING TO FIND DIFFERENT WAYS TO DELIVER EDUCATION SERVICES WITHOUT HAVING TO MEASURE WHAT WE DO JUST IN HOW MUCH MORE MONEY YOU SPEND?

Dix: WELL, I THINK THAT'S EXACTLY WHAT'S BEHIND THE PROPOSAL IN EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AT THE STATEHOUSE FROM REPUBLICANS. THEY BELIEVE THAT A LOT OF THOSE NEW INNOVATIVE THOUGHTS ARE GOING TO COME FROM EMPOWERMENT BOARDS AND LOCAL PEOPLE MAKING DECISIONS RATHER THAN JUST MORE BIG GOVERNMENT IDEAS COMING OUT OF DES MOINES.

Glover: SENATOR DVORSKY, YOU REPRESENT A UNIVERSITY TOWN. WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THIS CUTBACK AND WHAT'S BEING ASKED FOR IOWA SCHOOLS?

Dvorsky: I THINK -- AND I DON'T HAVE ALL THE DETAILS, BUT BASED ON ARTICLES FROM DAVID'S PAPER, IT'S ABOUT $100 MILLION SHORT AT LEAST IN DEALING WITH THE EDUCATIONAL PRIORITIES THE GOVERNOR HAS OUTLINED. OF COURSE, YOU KNOW, THE LEGISLATURE APPROPRIATES, NOT THE GOVERNOR. BUT CLEARLY, IF WE WANT TO DO THE TRANSFORMATIONAL PROGRAM THAT THE BOARD OF REGENTS HAVE OUTLINED WHERE WE CAN KEEP TUITIONS AT A GOOD LEVEL TO MAKE SURE STUDENTS FROM IOWA CAN ATTEND REGENTS UNIVERSITIES AND KEEP THE GOOD FACULTY THAT WE NEED, THAT'S $40 MILLION FOR FOUR YEARS. AND THEN THEY WILL DO INTERNAL REALLOCATION WITHIN IOWA STATE, UNI, AND UNIVERSITY OF IOWA OF $20 MILLION EACH YEAR FOR FOUR YEARS. I THINK WE NEED TO REALLY LOOK AT THAT PROGRAM AND SEE IF WE CAN FUND THAT PROGRAM AND MOVE THE STATE FORWARD IN THAT AREA.

Glover: IF THE BUDGET THAT REPRESENTATIVE DIX AND HIS COLLEAGUES IN THE HOUSE IS THE OPENING OFFER IN SOME BUDGET TALKS AT THE LEGISLATURE, WHERE ARE WE GOING TO END UP ON ISSUES LIKE THIS, SENATOR DVORSKY?

Dvorsky: WELL, I WOULD HOPE THAT THAT'S ONE THAT THERE WOULD BE MORE REVENUES PUT IN -- OR MORE RESOURCES PUT INTO THAT AREA. I DO COMMEND THEM FOR TALKING ABOUT EARLY CHILDHOOD, THAT THEY PUT SOMETHING ON THE TABLE TO DEAL WITH THE EARLY CHILDHOOD. WE HAD THE EMPOWERMENT PEOPLE UP IN THE LEGISLATURE ON THURSDAY, AND LINN COUNTY EMPOWERMENT REALLY HAS A GOOD PROGRAM, AS WELL AS JOHNSON. LINN HAS PROBABLY GOT THE BEST EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM IN THE STATE, AND THEY REALLY HONE IN ON THOSE AREAS THAT AREN'T BEING SERVED AND DEAL WITH THOSE LOCALLY, THE AREAS THEY NEED TO WORK ON.

Glover: SAVE US THE NEXT COUPLE OF MONTHS SO WE DON'T HAVE TO GO THROUGH THIS. THEY'RE TALKING ABOUT $12 MILLION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION. THE GOVERNOR IS TALKING ABOUT $39 MILLION. SHOULD WE JUST KIND OF CUT THE DIFFERENT?

Dvorsky: OFTENTIMES THOSE THINGS BOIL DOWN TO THAT. I DON'T KNOW EXACTLY WHAT'S GOING TO HAPPEN IN THERE, BUT I THINK YOU NEED TO LOOK AT EDUCATION IN TOTAL AND SEE HOW MUCH WE NEED FOR K-12 AND COMMUNITY COLLEGES. WE HAVEN'T TALKED ABOUT THEM. THEY'VE BEEN CRITICALLY UNDERFUNDED ALL THESE YEARS. THEY PROVIDE A REALLY GOOD ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND TWO-YEAR DEGREES.

Glover: REPRESENTATIVE DIX, THERE'S A GOVERNANCE COMMITTEE THAT'S WORKING AT THE STATEHOUSE THAT'S LOOKING AT SOME PRETTY FUNDAMENTAL THINGS. ONE OF THE THINGS THEY'RE LOOKING AT IS THE QUESTION OF IS IT TIME TO CHANGE THE WAY WE FUND SCHOOLS IN IOWA, MOVING AWAY FROM USING THE PROPERTY TAX TO PAY FOR SCHOOLS. IS IT TIME, IN YOUR VIEW?

Dix: I THINK THAT IT'S PROBABLY OVERDUE, FRANKLY, THAT THERE'S NOT SOME MAJOR CHANGES IN OUR PROPERTY TAX. BUT I THINK WHAT NEEDS TO BE FOCUSED ON IN PROPERTY TAX IS REALLY A MUCH MORE SIMPLER APPROACH. WE NEED TO DEFINE AT THE LEGISLATIVE LEVEL WHAT PROPERTY TAXES SHOULD PAY FOR. IT SHOULD PAY FOR FIRE DEPARTMENTS, POLICE, AND WATER. AND THEN AS YOU GO BEYOND THAT, IT OUGHT TO BE A DECISION OF LOCAL PEOPLE WHETHER OR NOT TO RAISE PROPERTY TAXES.

Yepsen: BUT, MR. DIX, IS THE STATE IN ANY POSITION TO BE USING SALES AND INCOME TAX REVENUES, YOUR TWO BIG SOURCES OF REVENUE, TO ESSENTIALLY BUY DOWN PROPERTY TAXES ANYMORE? I MEAN WHERE IS THE MONEY FOR THAT?

Dix: WELL, THOSE RESOURCES CONTINUE TO COME IN, AND I THINK THAT IS A DECISION FOR THE LEGISLATURE TO MAKE. IF THEY WISH TO USE RESOURCES FROM OTHER FUNDING SOURCES TO BUY DOWN ANOTHER, THAT'S A DECISION THEY CAN MAKE. YOU KNOW, ABSENT ANY OTHER EFFORTS TO TAKE PLACE, YOU HAVE NO OTHER CHOICE.

Yepsen: SENATOR DVORSKY, IN ADDITION TO EDUCATION AND THE MONEY REQUIRED FOR THAT, ANOTHER BIG BUDGET PROBLEM FACING THE LEGISLATURE IS MEDICAID, THE STATE'S HEALTH CARE PROGRAM FOR THE POOR. EVERY YEAR HEALTH CARE COSTS FOR THAT PROGRAM EXCEED WHAT EXPECTATIONS WERE. EVERY YEAR WE HAVE TO COME BACK, AND YOU GUYS HAVE TO PUT MORE MONEY INTO THIS. ARE THERE STRUCTURAL CHANGES THAT CAN BE MADE TO THE MEDICAID PROGRAM TO STOP THIS CONSTANT RATCHETING OF SPENDING?

Dvorsky: I THINK WE'VE DONE -- MADE A LOT OF GOOD EFFORTS IN THAT ACTUALLY TO DO THAT. THE PERCENTAGE OF MEDICAID IN THE STATE OF IOWA BUDGET IS, LIKE, 12 OR 13 PERCENT. IN THE NATIONWIDE AVERAGE, I THINK IT'S 22 TO 24. SO IT'S A LOT SMALLER PROPORTIONED THAN OTHER STATES FACE, SO I THINK WE'VE DONE A PRETTY GOOD JOB. IT LOOKS LIKE IT'S HIGHER THAN PEOPLE THINK, BUT WE'VE DONE A LOT OF THINGS. WE TALKED ABOUT GENERIC DRUGS AND DEALING WITH PRESCRIPTION DRUGS. WE DO A LOT OF OTHER THINGS. THERE ARE FOUR OR FIVE DIFFERENT AREAS WE LOOKED AT AND MOVED FORWARD, AND WE'RE CONSTANTLY TRYING TO TALK TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO SEE IF WE CAN GET MORE FLEXIBILITY IN DEALING WITH MEDICAID.

Yepsen: WELL, MR. DIX, ARE YOU GOING TO MAKE SOME STRUCTURAL CHANGES? AND SECONDLY, IS THIS BUDGET THAT THE HOUSE REPUBLICANS HAVE PROPOSED, IS THIS JUST TRYING TO KICK THE CAN DOWN THE ROAD A YEAR AND HOPE THAT CONGRESS ACTS?

Dix: NO, I DON'T THINK WE HAVE ANY EXPECTATIONS IN OUR PROPOSAL THAT CONGRESS IS GOING TO BAIL US OUT. CLEARLY WE NEED TO CONTINUE TO CHALLENGE OURSELVES ON REFORMS, AND I THINK WE'VE DEMONSTRATED THAT IN THE PAST. WE'VE MOVED INITIATIVES FORWARD THAT DO ADDRESS THE GROWTH IN MEDICAID EXPENDITURES. AND I EXPECT THAT WE'LL HAVE A NUMBER OF THOSE MEASURES ON THE TABLE.

Glover: IN FACT, AREN'T THINGS GOING TO GET WORSE? IF YOU TALK ABOUT CONGRESS -- AND WE'LL HAVE YOU BACK ON A LATER SHOW TO TALK ABOUT CONGRESS, WHICH YOU'RE RUNNING FOR. BUT PRESIDENT BUSH'S BUDGET ENVISIONS ABOUT $60 BILLION IN CUTS IN FEDERAL SPENDING FROM MEDICAID OVER THE NEXT TEN YEARS. ISN'T THAT PROBLEM JUST GOING TO GET WORSE?

Dix: YOU KNOW, YOU'RE RIGHT TO SAY THAT THERE'S SOME EXPECTATION THAT IT COULD GET WORSE. BUT I THINK IT'S ALSO IMPORTANT THAT PEOPLE UNDERSTAND THAT MEDICAID EXPENDITURES ARE DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE HEALTH OF THE ECONOMY ALSO. AND AS OUR ECONOMY IMPROVES, THERE'S, IN ALL LIKELIHOOD, GOING TO BE AN IMPORTANT REDUCTION BECAUSE OF THAT.

Glover: SENATOR DVORSKY, ONE OF THE THINGS THAT THE STATE DOES IN MEDICAID IS IT DECIDES WHICH KINDS OF HEALTH CARE IT'S GOING TO PAY FOR. YOU CAN GO THROUGH THE LAUNDRY LIST THAT'S INCLUDED IN MEDICAID AND MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT YOU AS A STATE WANT TO PAY FOR: DO YOU WANT TO PAY TO PUT GRANDMA IN A NURSING HOME; DO YOU WANT TO PAY FOR PRESCRIPTION DRUGS? IS IT TIME TO BEGIN ADDRESSING THOSE ISSUES?

Dvorsky: I THINK IT'S PROBABLY PAST DUE TO START ADDRESSING THOSE ISSUES. BACK TO YOUR PREVIOUS QUESTION, I THINK ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE NEED TO DO IN MEDICAID IS TO TALK TO OUR PROMINENT CONGRESSMEN AND SENATORS IN D.C. SENATOR GRASSLEY, REPRESENTATIVE NUSSLE, THEY HAVE CLEARLY HIGH POSITIONS WHERE THEY COULD HELP US IN MEDICAID. RIGHT NOW WE'RE TRYING TO SEE IF WE CAN GET A WAIVER TO HAVE MORE FLEXIBILITY OF MEDICAID. WE'RE TRYING TO SEE WHAT THEY'RE GOING TO DO ABOUT INTERGOVERNMENTAL TRANSFERS. THOSE ARE SOME BIG NUMBERS. INTERGOVERNMENTAL TRANSFERS ARE, LIKE, $70 MILLION, A BIG HIT TO THE IOWA BUDGET. AND WE HAVEN'T GOT AN ANSWER FROM THE BUREAUCRATS IN D.C. AND I WOULD HOPE THAT SENATOR GRASSLEY AND REPRESENTATIVE NUSSLE CAN HELP US IN THOSE SITUATIONS.

Glover: REPRESENTATIVE DIX, IS IT TIME TO START LOOKING AT WHAT SORT OF HEALTH CARE IOWA AS A STATE PAYS FOR?

Dix: WELL, WE LOOK AT THAT EVERY YEAR. EVERY YEAR I'VE BEEN INVOLVED IN OUR BUDGETING PROCESS, WE'VE BEEN LOOKING AT THOSE QUESTIONS AND, YOU KNOW, WE'VE MADE A NUMBER OF ADJUSTMENTS OVER THE YEARS.

Yepsen: MR. DIX, GO BACK TO THIS QUESTION OF THE CIGARETTE TAX AND RELATE IT TO IOWANS' HEALTH. I UNDERSTAND REPUBLICANS PROMISE NOT TO RAISE TAXES AND I UNDERSTAND YOU FEEL LIKE YOU'VE GOT ENOUGH MONEY TO COVER YOUR BILLS NOW AND YOU DON'T NEED TO RAISE THE CIGARETTE TAX. BUT WHY SHOULD IOWANS WHO DON'T SMOKE BE SUBSIDIZING THE HEALTH CARE OF THOSE WHO DO?

Dix: WELL --

Yepsen: I MEAN IOWA SPENDS MORE TO TAKE CARE OF SMOKERS THAN IT EARNS IN REVENUE FROM THE CIGARETTE TAX. SHOULDN'T WE TREAT THE CIGARETTE TAX AS A USER FEE?

Dix: I'M NOT SURE THAT THOSE NUMBERS ACTUALLY LINE UP. WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE TAX REVENUE THAT'S COLLECTED, THERE'S A LOT OF DISCUSSION THAT TAKES PLACE BETWEEN SMOKING-RELATED ILLNESSES. I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT THE TAX THAT WE ALREADY HAVE ON CIGARETTES IS THE SINGLE LARGEST COMPONENT OF THE PRICE OF A PACK OF CIGARETTES. SO CIGARETTE SMOKERS ARE PAYING A SUBSTANTIAL PORTION OF THEIR CARE THROUGH THAT.

Yepsen: AND, SENATOR DVORSKY, A THIRD AREA THAT CONCERNS THE LEGISLATURE IS PAYING FOR THE STATE'S COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS AND SALARY AGREEMENTS: $27 MILLION MORE MONEY IN THE NEXT FISCAL YEAR, ANOTHER HUNDRED IN THE YEAR AFTER THAT. DO YOU FEEL IT'S TIME FOR THE LEGISLATURE TO LOOK AT WAYS TO RESTRAIN THE GROWTH OF PUBLIC EMPLOYEE SALARIES AND BENEFITS?

Dvorsky: I THINK WE NEED TO LOOK AT THAT -- CONTINUOUSLY LOOK AT THAT. I THINK CHAPTER 20 OF THE IOWA CODE HAS WORKED VERY WELL OVER THE YEARS.

Yepsen: IS IT STILL WORKING?

Dvorsky: I THINK IT'S STILL WORKING.

Yepsen: MR. DIX?

Dix: I THINK THERE'S A SERIOUS QUESTION AS TO WHETHER OR NOT IT'S WORKING THE WAY IOWANS WOULD LIKE TO SEE IT WORK. WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE LAST COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT WHERE STATE EMPLOYEES RECEIVED ABOUT A 13-PERCENT PAY RAISE, THE CURRENT BARGAINING AGREEMENT, EVEN THOUGH IT'S NOT HITTING THE STATE IN TERMS OF ITS FINANCIAL BURDEN IN THE FIRST YEAR, COLLECTIVELY OVER THE TWO YEAR, ABOUT HALF OF THE STATE WORKERS ARE GOING TO GET A 13-PERCENT PAY RAISE. THE OTHER HALF ABOUT 11 PERCENT. MOST IOWANS AREN'T IN THAT SITUATION. I KNOW ON OUR FARM, WE MIGHT SEE A 5- OR 6-PERCENT INCREASE IN REVENUE ONE YEAR AND MAYBE DOWN 2 PERCENT THE NEXT. BUT CERTAINLY NOT SUSTAINABLE SO THAT WE CAN PAY OUR EMPLOYEES THAT KIND OF MONEY.

Glover: WHAT DO YOU DO TO CHAPTER 20?

Dix: WELL, I THINK THERE ARE A NUMBER OF CONSIDERATIONS. AND CERTAINLY THERE'S THE ONE THAT YOU -- THAT WE OUGHT TO TALK ABOUT AT LEAST IS GOING BACK TO THE POLICY THAT WE HAD BEFORE WHERE YOU GIVE EMPLOYEES AN OPPORTUNITY TO TAKE THEIR CASE TO THE PEOPLE. RIGHT NOW THIS PROCESS THAT EXISTS REALLY IS BANKRUPTING OUR STATE, NOT JUST AT THE STATE LEVEL BUT OUR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AS WELL.

Borg: SENATOR DVORSKY, YOU HAD A REACTION TO THAT.

Dvorsky: I THINK HE'S TALKING ABOUT STRIKES, AND I'M NOT SURE IOWA IS READY FOR THAT. BACK IN THE '70S, THOSE RADICALS SUCH AS BOB RAY AND JERRY FITZGERALD AND OTHERS, THE REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS PUT TOGETHER A CHAPTER 20, AND I THINK IT'S SERVED US THROUGH ALL THESE YEARS. ONE OF THE TRADE-OFFS IS WE DON'T HAVE STRIKES IN IOWA.

Yepsen: BUT OTHER WORKERS, SENATOR, HAVE THE RIGHT TO STRIKE. WHY SHOULDN'T PUBLIC EMPLOYEES HAVE THE RIGHT TO STRIKE?

Dvorsky: I THINK WE FEEL THAT THE PUBLIC EMPLOYEES, THAT'S THE TRADE-OFF. IF WE'RE GOING TO HAVE -- IF WE'RE GOING TO HAVE ARBITRATION AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN IOWA WHERE IT'S -- WHAT'S THE WORD I'M SEARCHING FOR? -- MANDATORY --

Glover: BINDING ARBITRATION.

Dvorsky: BINDING ARBITRATION, I'M SORRY. -- BINDING ARBITRATION, THE TRADE-OFF IS NOT TO HAVE STRIKES. SO THAT --

Yepsen: SENATOR, WHAT DO YOU DO ABOUT THE PROBLEM THAT THE GAP BETWEEN AVERAGE PAY AND BENEFITS OF THE STATE WORKER IS WIDER IN THIS END, AND WHAT THE AVERAGE IOWAN MAKES, IT'S WIDER THAN IN ANY OTHER STATE. WHAT DO YOU DO ABOUT THAT PROBLEM? WHAT DO YOU SAY TO A TAXPAYER?

Dvorsky: I'M NOT SURE THAT'S -- I QUESTION SOME OF THOSE STATISTICS. IT DEPENDS ON WHAT THE JOB IS AND IF THEY'RE COMPARING APPLES TO APPLES. I'M NOT SURE THAT ACTUALLY IS A VALID ANALOGY.

Glover: AND THIS HAS BEEN THE SITUATION UNDER BOTH REPUBLICAN AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNORS, REPRESENTATIVE DIX. WHY CHANGE NOW?

Dix: WELL, ALL I KNOW IS, IS THAT IN THE LAST FOUR YEARS THAT I'VE BEEN WATCHING THE BUDGETING PROCESS, SALARIES ARE EATING UP AN INCREASINGLY LARGER AND LARGER PORTION OF THE BUDGET. WE ONLY HAVE SO MUCH MONEY, AND THE TAXPAYERS SHOULDN'T BE ASKED TO SUPPORT THOSE KIND OF WAGE INCREASES.

Borg: AND WE ONLY HAVE SO MUCH TIME, AND WE'RE OUT OF IT. THANK YOU, GENTLEMEN, FOR BEING HERE. ON OUR NEXT TWO EDITIONS OF "IOWA PRESS," WE'LL TALK WITH THE TWO POLITICAL PARTY LEADERS IN THE IOWA SENATE, WHERE EACH PARTY HAS 25 SENATORS. JOINING US NEXT FRIDAY, MARCH 4, IS REPUBLICAN LEADER STEWART IVERSON OF DOWS. THAT PROGRAM WITH SENATOR IVERSON REMAINS AT OUR REGULAR 7:30 AIRTIME. THE FOLLOWING WEEK, THOUGH, ON FRIDAY, MARCH 11, THE DEMOCRATIC LEADER, MIKE GRONSTAL OF COUNCIL BLUFFS, WILL BE HERE. AND NOTE THAT PROGRAM WITH SENATOR GRONSTAL ON MARCH 11 AIRS AT 6:30 BECAUSE AT THAT TIME IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION'S ANNUAL FESTIVAL PROGRAMMING WILL BE UNDERWAY. AND WE CLOSE WITH THIS PROGRAM REMINDER: "IOWA PRESS" IS NOW AVAILABLE ON THE INTERNET. TRANSCRIPTS ARE AVAILABLE AND BOTH AUDIO AND VIDEO STREAMING ACCESSIBLE THROUGH THE I.T.E. FACILITY ON THE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION WEB SITE. EACH WEEKLY EDITION OF "IOWA PRESS" AVAILABLE THERE ON THE WEB THE FOLLOWING MONDAY AFTER WE AIR. THE ADDRESS IS IPTV.ORG/IOWAPRESS. ALSO AVAILABLE AT THE "IOWA PRESS" WEB SITE IS THE AUDIO AND VIDEO OF THIS WEEK'S ETHICS SEMINAR AT THE IOWA STATEHOUSE. THERE MICHAEL JOSEPHSON PRESENTED LAWMAKERS WITH "THE SIX PILLARS OF CHARACTER," AS IT WAS CALLED. THE TOPIC WAS ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN THE PUBLIC ARENA. THE PROGRAM HAS COMMENTS FROM IOWA SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES TOO. YOU CAN LINK ON ONLINE AT OUR WEB SITE, IPTV.ORG. WELL, THAT'S "IOWA PRESS" FOR THIS WEEK. I'M DEAN BORG. THANKS FOR JOINING US TODAY.


CAPTIONS BY: MIDWEST CAPTIONING DES MOINES, IOWA. FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY "FRIENDS," THE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION FOUNDATION; BY THE IOWA BANKERS ASSOCIATION... FOR PERSONAL, BUSINESS, AND COMMERCIAL NEEDS, IOWA BANKS HELP IOWANS REACH THEIR FINANCIAL GOALS; BY THE ASSOCIATED GENERAL CONTRACTORS OF IOWA, THE PUBLIC'S PARTNER IN BUILDING IOWA'S HIGHWAY, BRIDGE, AND MUNICIPAL UTILITY INFRASTRUCTURE; AND BY CAPITOL RESOURCES, INC., LOCATED IN BROOKLYN, IOWA; AND BY NICOLE SCHLINGER AND ERIC LANGE INDIVIDUALLY, FUND-RAISING AND COMMUNICATION SERVICES FOR MAJOR CAMPAIGNS SINCE 1996.

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