Iowa Public Television

 

Statehouse Journalists

posted on May 8, 2006

Borg: CAMPAIGNING ON A RECORD. REPUBLICAN AND DEMOCRATIC STATE LEGISLATORS BOTH CLAIM ADVANTAGE. WE'LL GET INSIGHT ON THE JUST-CONCLUDED IOWA GENERAL ASSEMBLY FROM STATEHOUSE JOURNALISTS ON THIS EDITION OF 'IOWA PRESS.'

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY 'FRIENDS,' THE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION FOUNDATION; BY THE IOWA BANKERS ASSOCIATION... FOR PERSONAL, BUSINESS, AND COMMERCIAL NEEDS, IOWA BANKS HELP IOWANS REACH THEIR FINANCIAL GOALS; BY THE ASSOCIATED GENERAL CONTRACTORS OF IOWA, THE PUBLIC'S PARTNER IN BUILDING IOWA'S HIGHWAY, BRIDGE, AND MUNICIPAL UTILITY INFRASTRUCTURE; AND BY CAPITOL RESOURCES, INC., LOCATED THIS BROOKLYN, IOWA; AND BY NICOLE SCHLINGER AND ERIC LANGE INDIVIDUALLY, FUND-RAISING AND COMMUNICATION SERVICES FOR MAJOR CAMPAIGNS SINCE 1996.

ON STATEWIDE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION, THIS IS THE FRIDAY, MAY 5 EDITION OF 'IOWA PRESS.' HERE IS DEAN BORG.

Borg: AS IOWA'S 2006 LEGISLATIVE SESSION WAS CONVENING FIVE MONTHS AGO, WE GATHERED STATEHOUSE JOURNALISTS AROUND THIS 'IOWA PRESS' TABLE FOR SOME PREDICTIONS AT THAT TIME. EVERYONE AGREED ELECTION-YEAR POLITICS WOULD MAKE LEGISLATING VERY DIFFICULT. WITH AN EVENLY SPLIT SENATE AND HOUSE REPUBLICANS HOLDING ONLY A SLIGHT ADVANTAGE IN THE HOUSE, BOTH SIDES WERE CAREFUL NOT TO GIVE THE OTHER A CAMPAIGN ISSUE. THE DYNAMIC WAS AMPLIFIED BY INCREASING INTENSITY IN THE CAMPAIGN FOR GOVERNOR. DEMOCRAT TOM VILSACK HAS ONLY A FEW MONTHS LEFT NOW IN OFFICE, AND REPUBLICANS WOULD LIKE TO TAKE BACK THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH. WELL, FOR THOSE REASONS, MAYBE SOME OTHERS TOO, THE SCHEDULED 100-DAY SESSION RAN 116 DAYS. AND TODAY WE'RE TALKING WITH THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO SPENT ALL OR SOME OF THOSE 116 DAYS WITH THE GOVERNOR AND LEGISLATORS. 'DES MOINES REGISTER' POLITICAL COLUMNIST DAVID YEPSEN WAS ONE OF THEM. 'RADIO IOWA' NEWS DIRECTOR KAY HENDERSON ANOTHER. 'ASSOCIATED PRESS' SENIOR POLITICAL WRITER MIKE GLOVER AND 'IOWA PUBLIC RADIO' STATEHOUSE CORRESPONDENT JENEANE BECK. KAY, I SAID THAT YOU SPENT A LOT OF TIME. YOU'RE GETTING SOME REST NOW. I'LL ASK THE FIRST QUESTION TO YOU. BUT, YOU KNOW, AS WE CAME UP TO THOSE FINAL CONTENTIOUS DAYS AFTER THE 100 DAYS RAN OUT, BOTH SIDES WERE SAYING INTRACTABLE, THE OTHER SIDE WON'T GIVE AN INCH. SUDDENLY THERE'S A COMPROMISE AND EVERYBODY IS CLAIMING VICTORY RIGHT NOW. WAS IT A MIRACLE.

Henderson: WELL, DEAN, I DON'T THINK ANYBODY WAS TAKING NOTES FOR THE POPE ON THIS ONE. NO ONE IS GOING TO BE BEATIFIED AND MADE A SAINT HERE. BUT WHAT HAPPENED IN THE CLOSING DAYS OF THE LAST COUPLE WEEKS, THERE WAS A LINE DRAWN. REPUBLICANS WERE ON ONE SIDE INSISTING ON TAX CUTS FOR SENIORS THAT INCLUDED ERASING SOCIAL SECURITY TAXES OVER A PERIOD OF YEARS AND SOME TAX RELIEF FOR PENSIONERS. ON THE OTHER SIDE, DEMOCRATS OF THAT LINE WERE INSISTING ON TEACHER PAY HIKES, SPENDING FOR PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS, AND A TEACHER ACADEMY. AT THE END BOTH SIDES HAD TO GIVE A LITTLE. REPUBLICANS HAD TO IMPLEMENT THEIR TAX CUTS OVER A LONGER PERIOD OF YEARS, AND DEMOCRATS HAD TO THROW OVERBOARD THEIR TEACHER ACADEMY. SO BOTH SIDES GAVE AT THE END. THERE WAS VERY LITTLE DIFFERENCE, BUT THEY STOOD ON THAT LINE FOR QUITE A BIT.

Borg: AND, DEAN, I THINK WE NEED TO SOMETIME STEP BACK AND LOOK AT WHAT HAPPENS, HOW DO YOU BARGAIN, WHAT DO YOU DO. YOU GET IN A ROOM WITH SOMEBODY, YOU POUND THE TABLE, YOU MAKE THREATS, YOU ISSUE FINAL ORDERS: THIS IS IT; THIS IS IT; I'M NOT MOVING AN INCH; THIS IS IT; BANG, BANG, BANG; SLAM THE DOOR. FORMER SPEAKER DON AVINSON WAS A REAL GEM AT THAT. HE COULD SLAM A DOOR BETTER THAN ANYBODY I'VE EVER SEEN. THAT'S HOW YOU BARGAIN. YOU SLAM DOORS, YOU POUND TABLES, YOU ISSUE ULTIMATUMS, YOU ISSUE FINAL OFFERS, AND THEN AT THE END OF THE DAY SAY, 'WELL, I WAS JUST KIDDING, LET'S SPLIT THE DIFFERENCE,' WHICH IS WHAT THEY DID.

Borg: JENEANE, HOW DID YOU SEE IT? DID YOU THINK THERE WERE SOME WINNERS AND LOSERS UP THERE? EVERYBODY IS CLAIMING THEY WON.

Beck: WELL, CLEARLY THERE ARE WINNERS AND LOSERS, BUT ONE OF THE LOSERS THAT WE COULD SEE IS FUTURE LEGISLATURES. THEY SPENT A LOT OF MONEY ON TEACHER PAY, OVER $200 MILLION IN THE NEXT THREE YEARS. THEY SIGNED A $100-MILLION TAX CUT. IF FOR SOME REASON THE ECONOMY WOULD DIP AGAIN AND REVENUES DROP OFF, FUTURE LEGISLATORS ARE GOING TO BE HAND-TIED BY THE AMOUNT OF MONEY THEY SPENT. SO THERE ARE WINNERS, WHETHER IT BE TEACHERS AND SENIORS WHO GET A TAX CUT, BUT THERE COULD BE LOSERS IN THE FUTURE.

Borg: DISCERNIBLE WINNERS?

Yepsen: I THINK KICKING THE CAN DOWN THE ROAD IS A HALLOWED TRADITION AT THE IOWA STATEHOUSE. MOST OF THESE POLITICIANS HAD SOMEBODY DO IT TO THEM YEARS AGO, AND THEY'RE CERTAINLY DOING IT TO OTHERS. I THINK THE THING THAT WENT INTO THIS SESSION AT THE END WAS A LOT OF PEOPLE CAME TO THE REALIZATION THAT THEY HAD SOMETHING TO LOSE HERE, THAT THEY MIGHT HAVE LESS POWER NEXT YEAR THAN THEY HAVE NOW, AND THAT MADE THEM A LOT MORE PLIABLE. FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU'RE MARY LUNDBY, THE REPUBLICAN LEADER, YOU MIGHT NOT BE IN CONTROL NEXT TIME. YOU MIGHT BE THE MINORITY LEADER. IF YOU'RE THE GOVERNOR, YOU'RE NOT GOVERNOR ANYMORE. IF YOU'RE CHRISTOPHER RANTS, I MIGHT NOT BE SPEAKER ANYMORE. AND WHAT THAT DID WAS THAT ENABLED SOME OF THEM TO SAY MAYBE I BETTER CUT THE BEST DEAL I CAN. AND THEN WHAT THEY DID, DEAN, WAS THEY LOGROLLED: I'LL DO YOUR TEACHER PAY THING IF YOU DO MY TAX CUT FOR RETIREES.

Borg: YOU MEAN BETWEEN PARTIES THEY LOGROLLED?

Yepsen: YEAH, AMONG -- INSIDE BOTH PARTIES AND BETWEEN THE TWO PARTIES. THEY SIMPLY SAID I'LL DO WHAT YOU WANT TO DO IF YOU DO WHAT I WANT TO DO, AND THAT'S HOW THEY PRODUCED A LOT OF THIS.

Glover: AND I THINK ONE OF THE STRONGEST SENTIMENTS -- AND IT TIES IN WITH THAT. TOWARDS THE END OF THE SESSION, A COMMENT I HEARD REPUBLICANS, DEMOCRATS, LOBBYISTS, OBSERVERS MAKE FOR THE LAST COUPLE OF WEEKS OF THE SESSION WAS IT'S TIME FOR AN ELECTION. POLITICS DOESN'T WORK WELL WHEN YOU'RE COMPLETELY DEADLOCKED WITH A 25/25 SENATE. THE SPEAKER MADE THIS COMMENT IN HIS CLOSING REMARKS: IF THAT EVER HAPPENS AGAIN, INVEST A QUARTER AND FLIP A COIN AND PUT SOMEBODY IN CHARGE.

Borg: CHRISTOPHER RANTS SAID THAT. WHAT'S HE SAYING THERE?

Glover: HE'S SAYING THAT THEY AGREED ON A POWER SHARING ARRANGEMENT IN THE SENATE, WHERE ONE PARTY WILL BE IN POWER ONE WEEK, THE OTHER PARTY WILL BE IN POWER THE NEXT WEEK. AND THAT INHERENTLY DOESN'T WORK. IN POLITICS, SOMEBODY SOMEBODY HAS TO RUN THE SHOW.

Borg: IS HE SAYING, 'THAT MADE MY JOB IN THE HOUSE DIFFICULT'?

Glover: VERY MUCH MORE DIFFICULT. IT MADE HIS JOB VERY MUCH MORE DIFFICULT BECAUSE HE COULDN'T DEAL EFFECTIVELY WITH A SENATE THAT WAS PARALYZED.

Yepsen: IT'S ALSO TRUE, DEAN -- AND I THINK A NUMBER OF THESE ISSUES HAVE SORT OF BUBBLED AROUND IOWA POLITICS FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS. I MEAN PEOPLE HAVE HEARD MY CHILI METAPHOR BEFORE WHERE YOU TAKE A LOT OF HOT INGREDIENTS, THROW IT TOGETHER, LET IT SIMMER FOR A LONG TIME, AND THEN YOU GET THAT EDIBLE PRODUCT. AND THERE'S A POLITICAL EQUIVALENT TO THAT, AND IT OCCURRED HERE. A LOT OF THESE SUBJECTS -- TEACHER PAY, HOW LONG HAS THAT BEEN AROUND? I MEAN IT'S BEEN AROUND. PEOPLE HAVE TALKED ABOUT IT. CUTTING TAXES FOR RETIREES, THAT'S AS OLD AS THE HILLS. AND YOU -- WE FINALLY REACHED A CRITICAL MASS. AND THE SECOND THING IS, I MEAN I DO THINK -- THEY DID BETTER THAN I THOUGHT THEY WOULD DO. I HAVE TO SAY THAT. AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SESSION, I WAS CERTAINLY A PESSIMIST ABOUT THE PROSPECTS FOR THIS SESSION, BUT THEY WERE ABLE TO COME TOGETHER IN A VERY EVENLY DIVIDED SESSION. AND YOU KNOW, DEAN, THAT REFLECTS THE PEOPLE OF IOWA. WE ARE ONE OF THE MOST CLOSELY DIVIDED, EVENLY BALANCED STATES IN THE COUNTRY. AND FOR A DEMOCRATIC GOVERNOR AND A REPUBLICAN HOUSE AND A 25/25 SENATE TO COME TOGETHER AND FIND SOME MIDDLE GROUND, I THINK THEY DID A SESSION MOST PEOPLE IN IOWA APPROVE OF.

Borg: JENEANE, DAVE HAS MENTIONED TEACHER PAY. THAT WAS ONE OF THE ISSUES THAT IN THE FINAL NEGOTIATIONS, DEMOCRATS WANTED MORE MONEY PUT INTO TEACHER PAY THAN REPUBLICANS DID AND REPUBLICANS WANTED TAX CUTS FOR SENIOR CITIZENS. HOW DID THAT PLAY OUT, THOSE TWO ISSUES, AS YOU SAW IT?

Beck: WELL, I THINK THAT DEMOCRATS DID WANT MORE MONEY FOR TEACHER PAY BUT, ON THE OTHER HAND, REPUBLICANS WERE OFFERING UP QUITE A BIT OF MONEY ON TEACHER PAY. I MEAN THEY WEREN'T SAYING, 'NO, I DON'T WANT TO DO ANY.' THEY HAD OFFERED QUITE A BIT OF MONEY UP, BUT THE ONE THING THEY DID WANT IS SOME SORT OF PAY FOR PERFORMANCE TIE-IN, AND SO THEY'VE GOT A PILOT PROJECT TO LOOK AT THAT BECAUSE THEY SAY THAT THAT'S SO CRUCIAL TO IMPROVING STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT, IS HAVING A PAY FOR PERFORMANCE PROGRAM. BUT ONE OF THE THINGS I FOUND REALLY INTERESTING ABOUT THE TAX CUT IS THAT THE INITIAL TAX CUT THAT WAS PUT ON THE TABLE BY HOUSE REPUBLICANS WAS A REPEAL OF THE PENSION TAX. AND WHAT THEY ACTUALLY SETTLED ON IS A REDUCTION IN SOCIAL SECURITY TAX CUT BENEFITS BUT ALSO IN JUST INCOME TAXES FOR SENIORS. SO IF YOU HAVE A FARM AND YOU DON'T REALLY HAVE A PENSION BUT YOU HAVE A FARM INCOME COMING IN, YOU CAN GET A TAX CUT TOO. AND THAT WAS A PROPOSAL BY HOUSE DEMOCRATS. SO BOTH SIDES CAN KIND OF CLAIM VICTORY THERE.

Glover: AND THERE'S A CLEAR POLITICAL IMPERATIVE BEHIND BOTH OF THOSE PROPOSALS, THE TEACHER PAY INCREASE THE DEMOCRATS WANTED AND THE TAX CUTS THAT REPUBLICANS WANTED. SENIORS VOTE IN GREATER PROPORTIONS THAN ANY OTHER DEMOGRAPHIC GROUP IN THE STATE. AND I THINK DEMOCRATS STARTED THIS SESSION LOOKING AS THIS, OH, WE'RE GOING TO PUNCH A BIG HOLE IN THE BUDGET BY CUTTING TAXES FOR SENIORS, AND THEN THEY STARTED TO THINK ABOUT IT, SENIORS VOTE. DENYING A TAX CUT FOR SENIORS IS A POLITICALLY RISKY THING TO DO. TRADITIONALLY EDUCATION RANKS VERY HIGH IN THIS STATE. EDUCATION IS ONE OF THE HIGHEST PRIORITIES ON EVERYBODY'S LIST. NOT BOOSTING TEACHER PAY IS UNACCEPTABLE FOR REPUBLICANS. SO YOU HAD TWO POLITICAL IMPERATIVES THAT CAME TOGETHER AND BOTH GOT ACCOMPLISHED BECAUSE BOTH PARTIES SAW REASONS TO.

Henderson: AND IF YOU LOOK BEHIND THE SCENES, IF YOU LOOK AT GEPETTO, THE PEOPLE WHO ARE KIND OF PULLING THE STRINGS ON THIS, THE INTEREST GROUPS ON TEACHER PAY, THE IOWA STATE EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, THE TEACHERS UNION HAS STRONGLY SOUGHT THESE TEACHER PAY RAISES, THEY BACK DEMOCRATS. IN REGARDS TO THE PENSION TAXES, THAT WAS SOUGHT BY IOWANS FOR TAX RELIEF. THEY TEND TO BACK REPUBLICANS. SO BOTH PARTIES WERE SORT OF PAYING OFF, IF YOU WILL, HUGE INTEREST GROUPS BUT ARE GOING TO BE VERY IMPORTANT ON THE CAMPAIGN TRAIL IN OCTOBER TO BOTH OF THEIR INTERESTS IN REGAINING CONTROL OF THE LEGISLATURE.

Yepsen: YOU MENTIONED WINNERS AND LOSERS, DEAN. I THINK -- I THINK ONE OF THE LOSERS IN THIS SESSION WAS THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF STATE AND COUNTY MUNICIPAL EMPLOYEES UNION.

Borg: AFSCME.

Yepsen: SURE. THE TEACHERS UNION, THEY GOT A RAISE. WHAT DID THE STATE WORKERS GET? NOTHING. THEY GOT A LEGISLATURE THAT TOOK $118 MILLION OFF THE TABLE THAT COULD HAVE GONE IN THE FUTURE TO PAY RAISES. SO I THINK STATE WORKERS IN THE LONG TERM WERE LOSERS HERE BECAUSE THERE'S NOT GOING TO BE AS MUCH MONEY SLOSHING AROUND THE STATE BUDGET FOR THEM TO HAVE FOR PAY RAISES.

Glover: AND I THINK JENEANE TOUCHED ON A VERY INTERESTING POINT EARLIER, WHICH YOU TALKED ABOUT. I MEAN ONE OF THE REASONS THAT THEY COULD DO ALL THAT THEY DID -- IN ESSENCE, THEY HAD A COUPLE OF BIG SPENDING PROGRAMS THAT THEY SAID, 'I'LL DO YOURS IF YOU DO MINE.' WELL, IT'S BECAUSE THE ECONOMY IS DOING PRETTY WELL RIGHT NOW. STATE REVENUES ARE UP. MONEY IS FLOWING IN PRETTY FAST. THEY CAN AFFORD TO DO THIS KIND OF STUFF. THE ECONOMY IS CYCLICAL. AT SOME POINT IT'S GOING TO TURN DOWN, AND THEY'RE GOING TO HAVE A BIND.

Borg: KAY, TOUCH PLAY WAS A BIG ISSUE, AND THE LEGISLATURE DECLINED TO GO BACK AND GIVE ANY RELIEF TO THOSE WHO INVESTED. THEY JUST SAID, 'NO, THIS IS THE DEADLINE. WE'VE AGREED ON IT. LET'S GET OUT OF HERE.' WHAT ARE THE POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THAT, OR WAS THE DECISION NOT TO TAMPER WITH THAT DEADLINE AND NOT TO GIVE ANY RELIEF POLITICALLY WISE?

Henderson: I DON'T THINK IT'S GOING TO HAVE AN EFFECT ACROSS THE BOARD, BUT I THINK IT COULD HAVE AN IMPACT IN INDIVIDUAL RACES. IF YOU LIVE IN A SMALL TOWN AND YOUR BAR OWNER HAD A COUPLE OF THESE TOUCH PLAY MACHINES AND LOST HIS SHIRT AND CLOSES THE BAR, WHICH MAY HAVE BEEN THE ONLY PLACE YOU COULD GO IN TOWN AND BUY A GALLON OF MILK AND NOW YOU HAVE TO DRIVE TO THE NEIGHBORING TOWN TO BUY YOUR MILK, THAT COULD HAVE AN EFFECT ON A LEGISLATIVE RACE IN A PARTICULAR DISTRICT. I DON'T THINK IT'S GOING TO HAVE AN EFFECT ACROSS THE BOARD ON REPUBLICANS OR DEMOCRATS EITHER WAY.

Glover: TO UNDERSCORE KAY'S POINT, I HAD A CONVERSATION WITH A LOBBYIST WHO MADE EXACTLY THAT POINT. AND HE SAID -- AND HE'S A FORMER ELECTED OFFICIAL. HE SAID THERE ARE A COUPLE OF PEOPLE YOU DON'T WANT TO ANGER BACK IN YOUR LEGISLATIVE DISTRICT. YOU DON'T WANT TO ANGER YOUR BARBER, AND YOU DON'T WANT TO ANGER YOUR BARTENDER, BECAUSE EVERYBODY IN TOWN GOES AND GETS THEIR HAIR CUT AND EVERYBODY IN TOWN STOPS BY FOR A BEER AT THEIR BAR. AND A LOT OF BAR OWNERS, CONVENIENCE STORE OWNERS, GROCERY STORE OWNERS INVESTED IN THESE THINGS AND ARE LOSING SOME MONEY AND AREN'T VERY HAPPY ABOUT IT.

Yepsen: YEAH, I THINK, THOUGH, THE NET POLITICS OF THIS IS A PLUS. I MEAN YOU HAD --

Borg: FOR WHO?

Yepsen: FOR OPPONENTS OF TOUCH PLAY. YOU HAD THE MOST LIBERAL PEOPLE IN IOWA ARE SAYING GAMBLING IS A REGRESSIVE TAX. YOU HAD SOCIAL CONSERVATIVES WHO SAY GAMBLING IS IMMORAL. THEY CAME TOGETHER. YOU KNOW, THAT'S A PRETTY -- PRETTY GOOD BUNCH OF PEOPLE. AND POLLS SHOW THERE ARE MORE OF THEM THAN THERE ARE TOUCH PLAY SUPPORTERS. THE OTHER -- THE ONE EFFECT OF TOUCH PLAY, THOUGH, WAS IT JUST ECLIPSED EVERYTHING ELSE. I MEAN, LOOK, WE'RE TALKING ABOUT IT HERE. LEADERS WERE VERY FRUSTRATED BECAUSE THEY DID A LOT OF THINGS THAT WE WEREN'T FOCUSED ON, THAT MEMBERS WEREN'T FOCUSED ON THAT WERE ECLIPSED BY THIS ISSUE.

Borg: DID IT ALSO SHOW THE POWER OF THE CASINOS? THAT'S BEING --

Henderson: IT SHOWED THE POWER OF THE CASINOS, BUT I ALSO THINK IT HIGHLIGHTED SOMETHING ABOUT THE IOWA LOTTERY. MOST IOWANS WHEN THEY BUY A POWERBALL TICKET OR ONE OF THOSE LITTLE SCRATCH-OFF TICKETS, THEY DON'T THINK THAT'S GAMBLING. BUT WHEN IT'S PACKAGED IN SUCH A WAY THAT IT CLOSELY RESEMBLES WHAT YOU WOULD SEE IF YOU GO INTO PRAIRIE MEADOWS, THOSE TOUCH PLAYS MACHINES, I THINK THEY WERE SHOCKED AND SURPRISED. THEY HAD NO PROBLEM YEARS -- YEAR AFTER YEAR GOING INTO THE GROCERY STORE WHERE THEY WERE SELLING THOSE TICKETS, BUT WHEN THEY SAW IT PACKAGED IN A DIFFERENT WAY, THEY HAD A VISCERAL EFFECT.

Glover: ONE THE VERY GREAT FRUSTRATIONS RUNNING THROUGH THE LEGISLATURE -- AND TOUCH PLAY WAS PART OF IT AND THIS CENTRAL IOWA EMPLOYMENT TRAINING CONSORTIUM SCANDAL WAS ANOTHER PART OF IT. AND IT'S, OF COURSE, ALL OUR FAULT, JENEANE. [ LAUGHTER ]

Beck: FOR COVERING THOSE THINGS.

Glover: BUT WHAT HAPPENED WAS THIS WAS A LEGISLATURE THAT COMING INTO IT, LEGISLATIVE LEADERS AND THE GOVERNOR WANTED TO TALK ABOUT THINGS LIKE TEACHER PAY, LIKE GETTING TOUGH ON SEX OFFENDERS, DOING ALL THESE KINDS OF THINGS. AT THE END OF THE DAY THIS LEGISLATURE WILL BE REMEMBERED FOR TOUCH PLAY, SLOT MACHINES IN CASINOS, AND CIETC.

Yepsen: CIETC.

Glover: THE SCANDAL AT THE CENTRAL IOWA EMPLOYMENT TRAINING CONSORTIUM. THAT'S WHAT THIS LEGISLATURE WILL BE REMEMBERED FOR, AND THAT FRUSTRATES A LOT OF PEOPLE.

Borg: JENEANE -- GO AHEAD.

Henderson: ONE OF THE LOSERS HERE WERE SMALL BUSINESSES WHO HAD THOUGHT HEADING IN, GIVEN THE RHETORIC THAT THEY HEARD FROM LEADERS OF BOTH POLITICAL PARTIES AND THE GOVERNOR IN REGARDS TO CREATING THESE INSURANCE POOLS FOR SMALL BUSINESSES SO THAT THEY COULD JOIN TOGETHER AND PERHAPS BUY INSURANCE MORE ECONOMICALLY FOR THEIR EMPLOYEES, THAT DIDN'T HAPPEN. IT'S HAPPENED IN OTHER STATES. THERE'S AN EXPERIMENT GOING ON IN MASSACHUSETTS REGARDING HEALTH CARE. IT DIDN'T HAPPEN HERE, MAYBE BECAUSE THEY WERE DEFLECTED ATTENTION-WISE TO OTHERS, MAYBE JUST BECAUSE THERE'S NO CONSENSUS YET AND THEY ARE GOING TO HAVE THAT AS A CAMPAIGN ISSUE IN THE FALL.

Borg: JENEANE, IN THE FINAL WANING HOURS TOO, THERE WAS SOME ACTION THAT CONCERNED THE DNR. TELL US ABOUT THAT. AND WAS THAT A SLAP AT THE DNR OR OTHERS?

Beck: WELL, I WOULD SAY IT PUTS PORK PRODUCERS IN THE WINNERS CATEGORY. AT THE VERY END OF THE SESSION, THE LEGISLATURE TOOK UP A BILL THAT WOULD NULLIFY RULES THE STATE'S ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION COMMITTEE HAD PASSED THAT WOULD GIVE THE DNR MORE AUTHORITY TO DECIDE IF CERTAIN ANIMAL CONFINEMENT OPERATIONS SHOULD NOT RECEIVE A MANURE MANAGEMENT PERMIT, ESSENTIALLY SAYING IF YOU'RE ENVIRONMENTALLY IN A SENSITIVE AREA, WE'RE NOT GOING TO GIVE YOU A PERMIT. AND THAT WAS MORE AUTHORITY THAN THE DNR CURRENTLY HAS. THEY FEEL RIGHT NOW LIKE THEY HAVE TO JUST ISSUE ANY PERMIT THAT'S REQUESTED. AND SO I THINK PORK PRODUCERS SHOWED THEIR MUSCLE AT THE VERY END. THEY PROMISED SOME CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS, AND THE VOTE WAS OVERWHELMING. IT WASN'T A PARTISAN VOTE AND SO I THINK PORK PRODUCERS WIN. AND MAYBE IOWANS LOSE OUT IF THE WATER SITUATION REMAINS CLOUDY.

Glover: THERE WAS SOME FEAR AMONG THE LEGISLATORS THAT THE DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES ACTUALLY WOULD ENFORCE CLEAN WATER RULES AND WOULD ACTUALLY WORRY ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, AND THE LEGISLATURE TOOK CARE OF THAT.

Yepsen: DEAN, ONE OF THE ISSUES THAT TALK ABOUT KICKING THE CAN DOWN THE ROAD, I THINK THERE ARE TWO. ONE IS THIS ENVIRONMENT THING. THE OTHER IS TAX POLICY. THE NEXT GOVERNOR AND THE NEXT LEGISLATURE IN THIS STATE ARE GOING TO HAVE TO FIGURE OUT A WAY TO BALANCE THE ENVIRONMENT AND AGRICULTURE. OKAY, IT'S NOT AN EITHER/OR SITUATION THAT CONFRONTS OUR STATE, AND THEY HAVE NOT FIGURED IT OUT YET. THIS ISSUE HAS JUST COME UP IN THE LAST, I'D SAY, GOOD YEAR, YEAR AND A HALF, BECAUSE GOVERNOR VILSACK HAS FIGURED OUT, AS HE LOOKS OVER HIS RECORD, IT ISN'T TOO GREAT ON THE ENVIRONMENT. AND SO HERE IN THE LAST YEAR, HE TURNED THE HEAT UP UNDER JEFF VONK TO STRIKE -- TO GET SOMETHING GOING. IT HASN'T BEEN RESOLVED AND SO THAT ISSUE, BALANCING THE ENVIRONMENT AND AGRICULTURE, GETS KICKED DOWN THE ROAD.

Borg: SO THAT'S ONE THING -- DO YOU SEE IT, MIKE -- YOU'VE MADE THE POINT EARLIER THAT IT'S TIME TO HAVE AN ELECTION. DO YOU THINK THE ENVIRONMENT AND SOME OF THE ACTION WE'VE JUST BEEN TALKING ABOUT HERE IS GOING TO BE A CAMPAIGN ISSUE?

Glover: OH, SURE. IT WILL BE A CAMPAIGN ISSUE. WHETHER IT WILL BE THE ISSUE THAT DECIDES THE NEXT GUBERNATORIAL CAMPAIGN, I DON'T KNOW. THAT WILL CERTAINLY BE AN ISSUE THAT THEY'RE TALKING ABOUT. THAT ISSUE HASN'T BEEN RESOLVED. THE WHOLE ISSUE OF RELIANCE ON ENERGY, OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES, THAT WILL BE AN ISSUE. ALL THESE THINGS WILL BE FOUGHT OUT. AND I GET THE SENSE THAT AFTER TWO YEARS OF STATE GOVERNMENT THAT WAS ESSENTIALLY DIVIDED WITH A LAME DUCK GOVERNOR THAT THERE'S AN OVERWHELMING SENSE AT THE STATEHOUSE THAT WHICHEVER WAY WE GO FROM HERE, IT'S TIME TO GO SOMEWHERE BECAUSE WE'RE STALLED.

Beck: BUT THE ENVIRONMENT POLLS WELL, BUT PEOPLE DON'T SEEM TO GO TO THE POLLS BASED ON THE ENVIRONMENT. SO, YOU KNOW, WE CAN TALK ABOUT THIS ISSUE AND PEOPLE WILL SAY WE WANT CLEAN WATER, BUT THEY DON'T TEND TO VOTE OVER THAT ISSUE.

Yepsen: I THINK IF PEOPLE DON'T LIKE DIVIDED GOVERNMENT WHEN THEY GO TO THE POLLS IN NOVEMBER, THEY SHOULD VOTE A STRAIGHT TICKET. I MEAN, YEAH, THE VOTER HAS TO ASK HIMSELF WHAT AM I DOING VOTING FOR A REPUBLICAN FOR GOVERNOR AND A DEMOCRAT FOR THE LEGISLATURE OR VICE VERSA, BECAUSE THIS IS WHAT YOU WIND UP GETTING.

Glover: AND THERE'S A LOT OF HISTORY BEHIND THIS. IF YOU THINK BACK, TERRY BRANSTAD WAS ELECTED GOVERNOR IN 1982. BEFORE THAT ELECTION, BOTH THE HOUSE AND THE SENATE WERE CONTROLLED BY REPUBLICANS. TERRY BRANSTAD, A REPUBLICAN, WON A FAIRLY EASY GUBERNATORIAL ELECTION. HE DEFEATED ROXANNE CONLIN BY A PRETTY GOOD MARGIN, AND BOTH HOUSES ROLLED DEMOCRAT. SO THERE'S SOME HISTORY BEHIND THAT HAPPENING.

Yepsen: DEAN, I THINK TAX POLICY BECOMES AN ISSUE BECAUSE OF THIS BUDGET BUSINESS WE'RE TALKING ABOUT. IF THE BUDGET TURNS SOUTH, I THINK THE CIGARETTE TAX IS GOING TO GET AN INCREASE NEXT YEAR, NOT BECAUSE THEY WANT TO GET RID OF SMOKING BUT BECAUSE THEY'RE GOING TO NEED THE REVENUE. AND THE ISSUE OF IOWA'S COMPLICATED INCOME TAX IS STILL THERE. IOWA'S COMPLICATED PROPERTY TAX, WHICH IS KILLING BUSINESS, IS STILL THERE, AND THOSE ARE ISSUES THAT WERE ALL POSTPONED UNTIL NEXT YEAR.

Borg: AND YOU WONDER -- AT LEAST I DO -- IF THOSE ARE ISSUES, THOUGH, THAT REALLY, JENEANE, RESONATE WITH THE VOTERS. PROPERTY TAX, PEOPLE COMPLAIN ABOUT IT BUT THEY DON'T -- IT SEEMS TO ME, DON'T VOTE THAT ISSUE.

Beck: WELL, THAT IS THE NUMBER ONE COMPLAINT OFTENTIMES THAT I HAVE HEARD FROM CITIZENS. AND WHAT DOES THE LEGISLATURE TYPICALLY REDUCE? INCOME TAXES NOT PROPERTY TAXES, BECAUSE LOCAL GOVERNMENTS COLLECT PROPERTY TAXES. BUT THE ISSUE THAT I THINK THEY'RE STUCK WITH IS IT IS THE COMMERCIAL PROPERTY TAXES THAT ARE TOO HIGH OR THAT ARE CAUSING PROBLEMS IN IOWA. BUT IF YOU EQUALIZE THOSE WITH RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY TAXES, RESIDENTS PAY MORE. AND WHAT POLITICIAN WANTS TO SIGN THAT INTO LAW?

Glover: AND WHAT THEY -- YOU HAVE TO LOOK AT THE HISTORY OF WHAT THEY'VE DONE. JENEANE IS RIGHT. THE LEGISLATURE FOCUSES ON INCOME TAXES, WHICH THEY CONTROL. PROPERTY TAXES ARE CONTROLLED BY LOCAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, SO WHAT THE LEGISLATURE DOES IS THEY FIND WAYS TO CUT THE TAXES THEY CONTROL AND SHIFT THE BURDEN ON THE TAXES THAT OTHER PEOPLE CONTROL. IN OTHER WORDS, THEY'LL TELL A COUNTY SUPERVISOR, 'YOU RAISE TAXES BECAUSE I DON'T WANT TO.'

Borg: WE TALKED EARLIER -- AND I'M GOING TO GO BACK AND DEVELOP IT A LITTLE BIT MORE, KAY, CIETC, CENTRAL IOWA EMPLOYMENT -- WHAT DOES THAT ACRONYM STAND FOR?

Henderson: THE CENTRAL IOWA EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING CONSORTIUM. IT'S A GROUP OF CENTRAL IOWA COUNTIES. IT'S A NONPROFIT GROUP THAT GOT FEDERAL MONEY FUNNELED THROUGH THE IOWA WORK FORCE DEVELOPMENT OFFICE TO HELP PEOPLE WHO ARE JOBLESS GET NEW SKILLS AND GET JOBS.

Borg: MY BASIC QUESTION THERE IS WHO GETS TARRED, IF ANYONE, WITH THAT SCANDAL.

Henderson: REPUBLICANS ARE HOPING DEMOCRATS GET TARRED BECAUSE THERE WERE DEMOCRATS INVOLVED IN THE AGENCY CONNECTED TO DEMOCRATS IN POLK COUNTY. POLK COUNTY DEMOCRATS HOLD GREAT SWAY WITHIN THE STATEWIDE PARTY BECAUSE IOWA -- DES MOINES, RATHER, IS THE MOST POPULOUS CITY IN IOWA. A LOT OF DEMOCRATIC VOTES ARE HERE. SO REPUBLICANS ARE HOPING THAT THEY CAN KEEP MEETING AS A LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE AND KEEP HAMMERING AT THIS SCANDAL AND TALKING ABOUT THE OVERPAYMENT OF THE MANAGERS AND TRYING TO LINK IT TO OTHER CANDIDATES WHO ARE ON THE BALLOT.

Glover: AND WHAT YOU START WITH IS -- KAY IS RIGHT. MOST OF THE PLAYERS, THE IMPORTANT PEOPLE WHO ARE INVOLVED IN THIS, ARE PROMINENT POLK COUNTY DEMOCRATS. AND IT DIVERTS ATTENTION FROM THE CLOSING MONTHS OF A DEMOCRATIC GOVERNOR'S TENURE IN OFFICE. AND REPUBLICANS, I DON'T THINK THEY KNOW WHERE THEY WANT TO GO, BUT THEY'RE GOING TO KEEP THE THING GOING HOPING, IF THEY TURN OVER ENOUGH ROCKS, THERE WILL BE SOMETHING UNDER IT. AND ONE OF THE METAPHORS I LIKE TO HEAR IS WHEN THE WHITEWATER INVESTIGATION STARTED, NOBODY HAD MONICA LEWINSKY IN MIND. THEY JUST KEPT LOOKING UNTIL THEY FOUND HER.

Yepsen: THIS IS -- THIS IS A DEMOCRATIC PROBLEM, BUT REPUBLICANS ARE FINDING IT USEFUL TO DEFLECT ATTENTION FROM THEIR OWN PROBLEMS. I MEAN IT STRIKES ME AS ODD THAT THE PARTY OF JACK ABRAMOFF ALL OF A SUDDEN HAS GOTTEN SANCTIMONIOUS ABOUT THE DEMOCRATS IN POLK COUNTY TAKING A LITTLE MONEY ON -- YOU KNOW, LINING THEIR POCKETS WITH SOME FAT SALARIES. THE POLITICAL EFFECT OF THIS, DEAN, I THINK IS GOING TO MAKE VOTERS JUST THAT MUCH MORE CYNICAL ABOUT GOVERNMENT. WE LIVE IN A TIME THAT I DON'T REMEMBER WHEN PEOPLE WERE AS ANGRY AT POLITICIANS AS THEY ARE NOW. AND I THINK THE EFFECT OF CIETC IS TO JUST MAKE PEOPLE SAY A PLAGUE ON ALL YOUR HOUSES. AND, DEAN, THE ACRONYM CIETC MEANS 'CUNNING IOWANS ENJOYING THE CASH.'

Beck: BUT WHEN YOU SAY A PLAGUE, DO YOU THINK IT MEANS THAT PEOPLE JUST DON'T GO VOTE?

Yepsen: YES.

Beck: BECAUSE USUALLY THAT'S HOW THEY SHOW THEIR DISPLEASURE.

Glover: AND THAT HELPS REPUBLICANS BECAUSE TRADITIONALLY DEMOCRATIC VOTER PERFORMANCE IN MIDTERM ELECTIONS IS LESS STRONG THAN REPUBLICAN VOTER PERFORMANCE. REPUBLICANS VOTE IN GREATER NUMBERS IN MIDTERM ELECTIONS. AND IF THIS DRIVES DOWN DEMOCRATIC PERFORMANCE EVEN FURTHER, THIS COULD HURT DEMOCRATS --

Yepsen: SURE. THIS COULD BE -- I MEAN THIS IS GOING TO BE A GOOD YEAR FOR DEMOCRATS UNLESS YOU GET INTO A SITUATION WHERE THEIR BASE STAYS HOME. AND I WOULDN'T BE SURPRISED TO SEE REPUBLICANS USE THIS CIETC THING AS A TURNOUT SUPPRESSION EFFORT JUST TO SIMPLY TAMP DOWN THE TURNOUT. IN A LOW TURNOUT ELECTION, REPUBLICANS WIN.

Borg: KAY, THERE WAS A LEADERSHIP CHANGE IN THE SENATE BY REPUBLICANS RIGHT IN THE FINAL DAYS, MARY LUNDBY REPLACING STEWART IVERSON. REPUBLICANS SAID, 'WE WANT MARY LUNDBY TO ENGINEER THIS THING IN THE LAST FEW DAYS.' DID THAT HAVE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NOVEMBER ELECTIONS?

Henderson: IT DID BECAUSE MARY LUNDBY, WHO WAS ON THIS SHOW EITHER LAST WEEK OR THE WEEK BEFORE, IS NOW GOING TO HAVE TO GO OUT AND RAISE MONEY TO COMPETE AGAINST STEWART IVERSON, WHO HAD A GOOD CHUNK OF CASH IN THE BANK READY TO HAND OUT TO CANDIDATES WHO ARE RUNNING. SO THERE'S A BIG COMPETITION IN THAT SENATE REPUBLICAN GROUP FOR LEADERSHIP POSITIONS ON DOWN THE ROAD. IN THE CLOSING DAYS OF THE LEGISLATIVE SESSION, I ASKED IVERSON, 'ARE YOU RUNNING?' HE SAID, 'YES.' SO IT APPEARS HE IS IN THE GAME, THAT HE IS GOING TO TRY TO USE HIS INFLUENCE, VIS-A-VIS THAT MONEY, GIVING IT TO CANDIDATES AND TRY TO COMPETE.

Yepsen: THE LOBBY HAS MOVED ITS CONTRIBUTIONS AWAY FROM SENATE REPUBLICANS AND TO HOUSE REPUBLICANS. IF YOU'RE ANALYZING THIS, THE SENATE IS PROBABLY GOING TO GO DEMOCRATIC. IT'S JUST THE WAY THE NUMBERS WORK OUT. AND LOBBYISTS, THEY DON'T MAKE CONTRIBUTIONS. THEY MAKES INVESTMENTS AND THEY EXPECT A RETURN ON THAT. WHETHER IT'S MARY LUNDBY OR STEW IVERSON, THEY ARE GOING TO HAVE A TOUGH TIME RAISING MONEY. IF YOU'RE A REPUBLICAN INTEREST GROUP, YOU'RE NOW PUTTING YOUR MONEY IN THE IOWA HOUSE AND IOWA HOUSE RACES BECAUSE THAT'S YOUR FIREWALL.

Glover: AND WHAT HAPPENED IN THE SENATE -- AND THERE'S NO WAY TO PUT A MORE SIMPLE FACE ON IT -- REPUBLICANS IN THE SENATE LOOKED INTO THEIR OWN GRAVE, AND THEY SAID, 'FOLLOWING STEW IVERSON IS GOING RIGHT THERE.' SO THEY SAID, 'WE'VE GOT TO FIND SOMEBODY ELSE.' THE INTERESTING THING TO ME WILL BE -- I THINK DAVE'S RIGHT. I THINK REPUBLICANS IN THE SENATE ARE GOING TO TANK, AND IT'S GOING TO ROLL DEMOCRATIC IN NOVEMBER. BUT WILL MARY LUNDBY TAKE THE BULLET FOR THAT BECAUSE SHE'S THE LEADER, OR DID SHE COME IN SO LATE THAT SHE CAN SAY, 'HEY, STEW IVERSON RECRUITED THESE CANDIDATES. STEW IVERSON SET THE AGENDA. I CAME IN TO TRY TO RESCUE IT. LET'S MOVE ON.'

Yepsen: THIS LEADERSHIP SHAKEUP PROBABLY SHOULD HAVE COME TWO YEARS AGO. I MEAN SENATOR IVERSON IS AN ENORMOUSLY WELL LIKED INDIVIDUAL, AND I THINK A LOT OF REPUBLICANS JUST DIDN'T WANT TO GIVE HIM HIS WALKING PAPERS. BUT IT GOT SO BAD HAVING LOST SEATS IN TWO ELECTIONS AND THE PROSPECTS WEREN'T IMPROVING THAT FINALLY A NARROW MAJORITY OF SENATE REPUBLICANS WENT TO STEW AND SAID, 'IT'S OVER, WE'VE GOT TO MOVE ON.' AND MARY WINS IN A COUP BY ONE VOTE.

Glover: AND INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH, THE ISSUE THAT FINALLY PUSHED IT OVER THE EDGE WAS CIETC, BECAUSE THEY WENT INTO A CLOSED CAUCUS TO TALK ABOUT THINGS, AND IVERSON SAID -- YOU KNOW, SOMEBODY SAID, 'WELL, WHAT ARE WE GOING TO DO ABOUT THIS CIETC? HOW ARE WE GOING TO PUSH IT? HOW ARE WE GOING TO HAMMER DEMOCRATS?' AND IVERSON SAID, 'I WANT TO SETTLE A BUDGET. LET'S GO DOWN AND NEGOTIATE A BUDGET. LET'S LET SOMEBODY ELSE.' AND SOMEBODY SAID, 'WAIT A SECOND, STEW. IT'S A DEMOCRATIC SCANDAL. WHY AREN'T WE PUSHING IT.' HE SAID, 'WELL, LET'S HAVE A VOTE,' AND HE LOST.

Borg: KAY, DO YOU THINK THE SESSION AT ALL HAD ANY IMPACT ON THE RACE FOR GOVERNOR?

Henderson: SURE IT DID. IT HAD AN IMPACT IN THAT IT KIND OF GUMMED UP THE CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTION PERIOD. THERE IS A STATE LAW THAT PROHIBITS PACS FROM CONTRIBUTING TO CANDIDATES UNTIL THIRTY DAYS AFTER THE LEGISLATURE HAS ADJOURNED, SO THAT MONEY CAN'T COME POURING IN UNTIL THIRTY DAYS. IT ALSO KIND OF SUCKED ALL THE OXYGEN OUT OF THE ROOM FOR THOSE CAMPAIGNS THAT WERE TRYING TO PRESS THROUGH A MESSAGE ON A VARIETY OF ISSUES LIKE FREEZING TUITION OR A GOVERNMENT CLEANUP SCANDAL. REPRESENTATIVE FALLON WAS KIND OF STUCK AT THE STATEHOUSE; WHEREAS, HIS CAMPAIGN IS, YOU KNOW, TRAVELING AROUND THE STATE IN HIS CAR AND MEETING PRIVATELY WITH DEMOCRATIC ACTIVISTS. SO IT REALLY HAMPERED ALL THREE OF THOSE DEMOCRATIC CAMPAIGNS.

Yepsen: IT HAMPERED BLOUIN AND FALLON WORSE THAN IT DID CULVER. CULVER WAS THE WINNER BECAUSE IF BLOUIN CAN'T RAISE MONEY AND FALLON IS PINNED DOWN AT THE STATEHOUSE, CHET CULVER IS AHEAD IN THE POLLS, HE COMES OUT AHEAD.

Borg: ONE THING WE HAVEN'T TALKED ABOUT HERE IS THE IMPACT OF THE SESSION ON UNIVERSITIES. AND WE ONLY HAVE ABOUT THIRTY SECONDS, MIKE.

Glover: THEY DID NOT COME AWAY WITH WINNERS. THEY GOT A MODEST, AND I STRESS MODEST, INCREASE IN THE STATE SPENDING, WHICH MEANS THAT AT SOME POINT THE WHOLE ISSUE OF TUITIONS IS GOING TO HAVE TO BE ON THE TABLE. THEY'RE TRYING TO PUT THE BEST FACE ON IT. THEY'RE NOT COMPLAINING LOUDLY, BUT THEY DIDN'T COME OFF VERY WELL. THEY WOULD HAVE TO BE PUT IN THE LOSER CATEGORY.

Borg: THANK YOU FOR YOUR INSIGHTS. NEXT WEEKEND WE'RE GOING TO BEGIN THE FIRST OF THREE SPECIAL EDITIONS OF 'IOWA PRESS' DEALING WITH THE UPCOMING IOWA PRIMARY ELECTIONS. EACH PROGRAM WILL BE AN HOUR LONG. DURING THE NEXT THREE WEEKS, YOU'LL BE HEARING FROM CANDIDATES IN THE STATE'S MOST HIGHLY CONTESTED PRIMARY ELECTIONS. THAT INCLUDES CANDIDATES IN THE GUBERNATORIAL CAMPAIGN AND THE FIRST DISTRICT CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION. SO, YOU SEE, WE HAVE SOME BUSY AND INFORMATIVE TIMES AHEAD LEADING UP TO THE JUNE 6 PRIMARIES. I HOPE YOU PLAN TO WATCH. WELL, THAT'S IT FOR THIS WEEKEND'S EDITION OF 'IOWA PRESS.' I'M DEAN BORG. THANKS FOR JOINING US TODAY.

FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM WAS PROVIDED BY 'FRIENDS,' THE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION FOUNDATION; BY THE IOWA BANKERS ASSOCIATION... FOR PERSONAL, BUSINESS, AND COMMERCIAL NEEDS, IOWA BANKS HELP IOWANS REACH THEIR FINANCIAL GOALS; BY THE ASSOCIATED GENERAL CONTRACTORS OF IOWA, THE PUBLIC'S PARTNER IN BUILDING IOWA'S HIGHWAY, BRIDGE, AND MUNICIPAL UTILITY INFRASTRUCTURE; AND BY CAPITAL RESOURCES, INC., LOCATED IN BROOKLYN, IOWA; AND BY NICOLE SCHLINGER AND ERIC LANGE INDIVIDUALLY, FUND-RAISING AND COMMUNICATION SERVICES FOR MAJOR CAMPAIGNS SINCE 1996.

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