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IOWA PRESS #2817 - Secretary of State Chet Culver and Rep. Janet Metcalf
December 24, 2000

Dean Borg: WITH THE ELECTION OF 2000 BEHIND US, QUESTIONS ABOUT FUTURE ELECTIONS FACE US. WE FOCUS ON REDISTRICTING IOWA, AND THE FUTURE OF THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE WITH REPRESENTATIVE JANET METCALF, WHO CHAIRS THE GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE OF THE IOWA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, AND WITH IOWA SECRETARY OF STATE CHET CULVER ON THIS EDITION OF IOWA PRESS."

Narrator: FUNDING FOR IOWA PRESS HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY FRIENDS OF IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION; AND BY THE IOWA BANKERS ASSOCIATION... FOR PERSONAL, BUSINESS, AND COMMERCIAL NEEDS, IOWA BANKS HELP IOWANS REACH THEIR FINANCIAL GOALS; BY THE ASSOCIATION OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY, THE VOICE OF IOWA BUSINESS, REPRESENTING THE INTERESTS OF OVER 1,500 BUSINESSES EMPLOYING 300,000 IOWANS; AND BY THE ASSOCIATED GENERAL CONTRACTORS OF IOWA, THE PUBLIC'S PARTNER IN BUILDING IOWA'S HIGHWAY, BRIDGE, AND MUNICIPAL UTILITY INFRASTRUCTURE. THIS IS THE SUNDAY, DECEMBER 24 EDITION OF IOWA PRESS. HERE IS DEAN BORG.

Borg: THE GENERAL ELECTION OF 2000 HAS BROUGHT A NEW LIGHT, HOPEFULLY A GUSH OF FRESH AIR TO THE ELECTORAL PROCESS. AND TO SAY THAT BIG CHANGES ARE COMING COULD BE AN UNDERSTATEMENT. THE POST-ELECTION DEBACLE IN FLORIDA MAKES IT A VIRTUAL CERTAINTY THAT FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL ELECTIONS WILL UNDERGO UNPRECEDENTED SCRUTINY BETWEEN NOW AND NOVEMBER 2002. AND SOME ARE CALLING FOR A MASSIVE OVERHAUL ON THE WAY WE CHOOSE OUR ELECTED OFFICIALS, FROM MECHANICS AND HARDWARE OF VOTING AND COUNTING, TO AN INTENSE REVIEW OF THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE ITSELF. AND ALSO BETWEEN NOW AND NOVEMBER 2002 IS REDISTRICTING. IOWA, LIKE ALL STATES, WILL REDRAW ITS VOTING DISTRICT BOUNDARIES. THAT, BASED ON POPULATION SHIFTS DOCUMENTED BY THE CENSUS OF 2000. WELL, HERE NOW TO HELP US SORT THROUGH SOME OF THE PRIORITIES ARE CHET CULVER, WHO IS NOW IN HIS FIRST TERM AS IOWA SECRETARY OF STATE, AND REPRESENTATIVE JANET METCALF, WHO CHAIRS THE GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE IN THE IOWA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND WHO BEGINS HER NINTH TERM AT THE IOWA HOUSE NEXT MONTH. WELCOME TO IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION. AND ACROSS THE TABLE, STATEHOUSE REPORTERS DAVID YEPSEN OF THE DES MOINES REGISTER AND MIKE GLOVER OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS.

Glover: SECRETARY CULVER, LET'S START THIS OFF BY LOOKING BACKWARDS. IT WAS A CLOSE ELECTION IN IOWA. GIVE US A REPORT CARD. HOW DID THE ELECTION GO?

Culver: WELL, I THINK THE ELECTION OFFICIALS ACROSS THE STATE, THE 99 COUNTY AUDITORS, THE PRECINCT WORKERS DID A TREMENDOUS JOB. THIS ELECTION WAS DECIDED BY JUST OVER 4,000 VOTES. THERE WAS A LOT OF SCRUTINY APPLIED, A LOT OF PEOPLE TAKING A CLOSE LOOK AT HOW WE CONDUCTED THE ELECTIONS IN THIS STATE. AND I THINK WE HAVE A WELL-EARNED AND DESERVED REPRESENTATION OF CONDUCTING OPEN, HONEST, AND CLEAN CAMPAIGNS AND ELECTIONS. SO I'M VERY PROUD, I'D SAY ABOUT AN "A."

Glover: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, ANY REASON TO BELIEVE THOSE RESULTS WERE NOT ACCURATE?

Metcalf: I THINK THEY WERE GREAT. I THINK WE DO HAVE A VERY GOOD AND CLEAN ELECTION. THE ONLY THING THAT I THINK THE STATE GOVERNMENT COMMITTEE WILL BE LOOKING AT WITH SOME SCRUTINY IS ABSENTEE BALLOTING AND ABSENTEE VOTING. THE MINUTE YOU TAKE THE BALLOT OUT OF THE POLLING PLACE WITH ALL ITS PRECAUTIONS AND SECURITIES, THERE IS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR SOME QUESTION. FOR INSTANCE, WE THINK THAT POLITICAL OPERATIVES SHOULD NOT HAVE ANY CHANCE TO HANDLE THE BALLOTS. AND WE WERE FRANKLY RATHER PUZZLED THAT THESE SECRETARY OF STATE'S OFFICE DID NOT WORK WITH US IN THE LAST FEW YEARS ON A BILL THAT WE HAD THAT WOULD HAVE ELIMINATED THAT POSSIBILITY.

Glover: SO YOU WANT TO MAKE IT TOUGHER TO VOTE ABSENTEE, LIMIT THE NUMBER OF ABSENTEE BALLOTS?

Metcalf: I THINK THAT'S RIGHT. AT LEAST THE PROCESS BY WHICH THEY ARE HANDLED NEEDS TO BE TIGHTENED.

Glover: SECRETARY CULVER, YOU'RE THE STATE'S TOP ELECTION OFFICIAL. IS THAT SOMETHING THE STATE LEGISLATURE OUGHT TO BE DOING?

Culver: I'M LOOK FORWARD TO WORKING WITH REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, WITH THE REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS NEXT SESSION TO LOOK AT OUR WHOLE PROCESS, WHETHER IT'S ABSENTEE BALLOTS, VOTING MACHINES. I THINK THAT WE REALLY HAVE TO INVEST IN TECHNOLOGY. I THINK NOW IS THE TIME TO LOOK AT THE COUNTS.

Glover: WE'LL GET TO THAT, SECRETARY CULVER, BUT LET'S TALK ABOUT ABSENTEE BALLOTS RIGHT NOW. IS IT A GOOD IDEA TO MAKE IT TOUGHER TO VOTE ABSENTEE?

Culver: WELL, I FIRMLY BELIEVE THAT WE NEED TO GIVE VOTERS OPTIONS. THE MORE OPTIONS, I THINK, YOU HAVE TO VOTE, THE HIGHER TURNOUT YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE. WE HAD 72 PERCENT TURNOUT. WE HAD THE EIGHTH HIGHEST TURNOUT IN THE NATION. WE'RE GOING TO HAVE PUBLIC HEARINGS AND WE'RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT THIS ACROSS THE STATE. MY OFFICE IS CONDUCTING FIVE PUBLIC HEARINGS IN THE MONTH OF JANUARY. PEOPLE CAN FIND INFORMATION ABOUT THOSE HEARINGS ON MY WEB PAGE, AND I JUST ENCOURAGE IOWANS TO GET INVOLVED AND BE PART OF THIS DISCUSSION, AND THEN WE'LL MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE LEGISLATURE NEXT SESSION.

Yepsen: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, SOME STATES ARE MOVING TOWARD MORE ABSENTEE BALLOT VOTING. IN THE STATE OF OREGON, EVERYBODY VOTES ABSENTEE. THE VOTERS ALL JUST MAILED A BALLOT. THEY HAD ABOUT AN 80 PERCENT TURNOUT. WE HAD ABOUT 70. IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON, EVERYBODY'S MAILED AN APPLICATION FOR AN ABSENTEE BALLOT. WHY DO YOU WANT TO MAKE IT MORE DIFFICULT FOR IOWANS TO VOTE WHEN OTHER STATES ARE MOVING IN THE OTHER DIRECTION?

Metcalf: DAVID, I THINK THAT WE NEEED TO HAVE, AS I SAID BEFORE, SCRUTINY ABOUT WHO HANDLES THE BALLOTS, NOT WHO IS VOTING, BUT RATHER WHAT HAPPENS ONCE THE PERSON SENDS IN A REQUEST FOR A BALLOT. FOR INSTANCE, RIGHT NOW IN IOWA, A POLITICAL OPERATIVE COULD HAVE A WHOLE BUNCH OF BALLOTS SENT TO THEIR HOUSE, HAVE A BUNCH OF PEOPLE COME AND VOTE IN THEIR HOUSE. AND IT JUST SEEMS TO BE AN EROSION OF THAT PARTICULAR SCRUTINY OF A BALLOT.

Yepsen: SO THIS ISN'T SOME POLITICAL DEAL, IS IT, REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, WHERE REPUBLICANS -- YOU KNOW, YOU'VE LOST FOUR PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN A ROW IN THIS STATE. YOU'VE LOST THE GOVERNORSHIP. IT'S JUST NOT THAT THE DEMOCRATS ARE DOING A BETTER JOB ON THE ABSENTEE BALLOT GAME THAN YOU FOLKS, IS IT?

Metcalf: YOU KNOW, WE PICKED UP THE SAME NUMBER OF SEATS IN THE HOUSE AND THE SENATE AGAIN THIS YEAR. I THINK THIS IS A PRETTY BALANCED STATE POLITICALLY. NO, IT'S NOT A POLITICAL CONCERN.

Yepsen: ALL RIGHT, MR. CULVER, WHAT ABOUT THIS? WHY SHOULD POLITICAL OPERATIVES BE ABLE TO GET ABSENTEE BALLOTS IN THIS STATE? WHAT'S WRONG WITH HER IDEA OF TIDYING UP A LITTLE BIT WHO GETS THEM?

Culver: WELL, FIRST OF ALL, I DO WANT TO MAKE IT VERY CLEAR THAT I'M INTERESTED IN WORKING WITH REPRESENTATIVE METCALF AND OTHER OFFICIALS IN THE STATE LEGISLATURE. I DON'T THINK THIS IS TIME FOR PARTISAN BICKERING, PLACING BLAME ON OFFICES OR ELECTED OFFICIALS, I THINK IT'S ..

Yepsen: MY QUESTION TO YOU, SIR, IS WHAT'S WRONG WITH SAYING YOU HAVE TO BE A REAL HUMAN BEING IN A RESIDENCE BEFORE YOU CAN GET AN ABSENTEE BALLOT? UNLESS, OF COURSE, YOU'VE GOT PEOPLE THAT ARE OUT THERE DOING THAT.

Culver: I DON'T THINK ONE PARTY IS VIOLATING LAWS AND THE ANOTHER PARTY IS NOT. I THINK BOTH PARTIES KNOW HOW TO USE ABSENTEE BALLOTS EFFECTIVELY. SO THIS ISN'T A PARTISAN ISSUE, FIRST OF ALL. SECOND OF ALL, WE HAVE LAWS ON THE BOOKS. IF PEOPLE ARE TAMPERING WITH ABSENTEE BALLOTS, IF THEY'RE MISHANDLING THEM, WE HAVE PUNISHABLE OFFENSES, AND I AM ALL FOR ENFORCING THOSE PENALTIES AND ENFORCING THE LAW, SO IF WE GET REPORTS OF PEOPLE MISHANDLING ABSENTEE BALLOTS, I FULLY INTEND TO WORK WITH COUNTY ATTORNEYS ACROSS THE STATE. I DON'T THINK IT'S A MAJOR PROBLEM; HOWEVER, I'M HAPPY TO TALK TO IOWANS ABOUT IT IN THE MONTH OF JANUARY.

Yepsen: SO YOU CAN CLEAN UP ANY MINOR PROBLEMS THAT YOU HAVE WITH ABSENTEE BALLOTS. BUT HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT THE OREGON AND WASHINGTON MODEL? IS THAT SOMETHING WE SHOULD DO IN IOWA?

Culver: WELL, IT'S SOMETHING THAT I THINK I'M GOING TO LOOK AT NEXT SESSION. I HAVE PROPOSED A BILL, FOR EXAMPLE, TO ALLOW CITIES WITH LESS THAN 200 PEOPLE, VERY SMALL COMMUNITIES ACROSS THE STATE, TO DO ALL-MAIL BALLOTS. THAT WOULD SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE THE COST ASSOCIATED WITH CONDUCTING ELECTIONS IN SMALLER COMMUNITIES. AND AGAIN, I DON'T THINK WE SHOULD REALLY WORRY TOO MUCH ABOUT THE ABSENTEE BALLOTING PROBLEM. THE PROBLEM IS THAT WE NEED TO INVEST MORE IN TECHNOLOGY. WE NEED TO INVEST IN MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING, AND THAT'S REALLY WHERE WE CAN IMPROVE. BUT AGAIN, WE DID VERY WELL IN THIS STATE. I WANT TO MAKE THAT VERY CLEAR.

Yepsen: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, DO YOU THINK --

Culver: WE SHOULD BE PROUD OF THE EFFORTS MADE AT THE LOCAL LEVEL.

Yepsen: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, WHAT DO YOU THINK OF HIS IDEA TO ALLOW MAIL-IN BALLOTS IN SMALLER COMMUNITIES?

Metcalf: I THINK HE'S RIGHT, THAT IT IS EXPENSIVE TO RUN ELECTIONS. IT'S HARD TO FIND PEOPLE TO WORK FOR 14 HOURS AT THE POLLS. I'M NOT SURE I'M READY FOR AN ALL MAIL-IN BALLOT SUGGESTION. BUT LET'S LOOK AT IT. I'D BE WILLING TO WORK WITH HIM NEXT YEAR.

Borg: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF HAS JUST MENTIONED THE DIFFICULTY IN SOME COUNTIES OF GETTING PEOPLE TO EVEN WORK IN THE POLLS, AND EARLIER SHE TALKED ABOUT THIS BEING A VERY INTENSE SECURITY AND PRECAUTIONS OF THE POLLING PLACE. WHAT ARE THE RAMIFICATIONS OF THAT DIFFICULTY IN GETTING POLL WORKERS?

Culver: WELL, ONE OF THE SOLUTIONS, I THINK, TO THAT PROBLEM IS TO ALLOW YOUNG PEOPLE TO WORK IN THE POLLS. I'M A FORMER HIGH SCHOOL GOVERNMENT AND HISTORY TEACHER. I FIRMLY BELIEVE THAT POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IS A LEARNED BEHAVIOR. I DON'T THINK THERE'S A BETTER WAY TO TEACH YOUNG PEOPLE ABOUT THE PROCESS THAN ALLOWING THEM TO WORK AS PRECINCT OFFICIALS. I HAVE A BILL THAT I'M GOING TO RUN AGAIN THIS YEAR THAT UNFORTUNATELY FAILED LAST YEAR, AND IT WOULD ALLOW 16 AND 17 YEAR OLDS TO WORK IN THE PRECINCTS ACROSS THIS STATE. ONE YOUNG PERSON PER PRECINCT WOULD IMMEDIATELY INJECT 2,100 YOUNG PEOPLE INTO THE POLITICAL PROCESS. SO I AM AWARE OF THE FACT THAT IT IS BECOMING MORE DIFFICULT TO FIND ELECTION WORKERS. SO I THINK GETTING YOUNG PEOPLE INVOLVED WOULD BE A START, BUT I ALSO WANT TO TAKE A PRO-ACTIVE ROLE IN WORKING WITH LOCAL ELECTION OFFICIALS TO GO OUT AND RECRUIT AND TRAIN NEW ELECTION OFFICIALS FROM BOTH PARTIES.

Borg: IN YOUR PLAN FOR THIS, WOULD THE 16- AND 17-YEAR-OLDS BE IN ADDITION TO THE POLL WORKERS THERE? THAT IS, WOULD THEY BE ASSISTANTS OR WOULD THEY ACTUALLY BE IN CHARGE?

Culver: THEY WOULD BE ASSISTANTS. WE HAVE DRAFTED THE BILL IN SUCH A WAY THAT THERE ARE A LOT OF RESTRICTIONS ON THE TYPE OF WORK THEY CAN DO, BUT MOST IMPORTANTLY THEY WOULD BE ABLE TO GET PAID, SPEND A DAY WORKING IN THE PRECINCTS, AND LEARN ABOUT THE PROCESS, AND AT THE SAME TIME ALLEVIATING SOME OF THE PROBLEMS WITH STAFFING.

Borg: WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THAT, REPRESENTATIVE METCALF?

Metcalf: I THINK IT HAS MERIT. I'D LIKE TO LOOK INTO IT.

Glover: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, SECRETARY CULVER HAS TALKED A LOT ABOUT NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND DIFFERENT KINDS OF VOTING METHODS. ACROSS THIS STATE THERE'S A LOT OF DIFFERENT WAYS TO VOTE, FROM PAPER BALLOTS TO SCANNERS, TO ALL KINDS OF OTHER THINGS. IS IT TIME FOR THE STATE TO IMPOSE STATEWIDE STANDARDS ON HOW PEOPLE VOTE?

Metcalf: WE ALREADY HAVE A COMMISSION THAT I BELIEVE IS PERHAPS OUT OF HIS OFFICE THAT HAS A LIST OF MANUFACTURERS OF VOTING EQUIPMENT. NO COUNTY CAN PURCHASE EQUIPMENT THAT IS NOT A ZERO TOLERANCE FOR ERROR, AND IT MUST BE OFF OF THAT LIST THAT THE STATE HAS. ABOUT 70 PERCENT OF THE BALLOTS IN THE BALLOTING IN THE MACHINES IN IOWA HAVE SOME SORT OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENT. SO WE'RE IN PRETTY GOOD SHAPE. I THINK ONLY ONE COUNTY HAS A PAPER BALLOT.

Glover: WELL, BUT IS IT TIME TO ELIMINATE THE 70 PERCENT AND TAKE IT TO 100 PERCENT AND SAY EVERYBODY WHO VOTES IN IOWA IS GOING TO HAVE AN EQUAL CHANCE TO HAVE THEIR VOTE COUNTED BECAUSE WE'RE ALL GOING TO VOTE THE SAME WAY?

Metcalf: I THINK THAT IDEA HAS A LOT OF MERIT.

Glover: AND SECRETARY CULVER, I ASSUME YOU THINK THAT IDEA HAS A LOT OF MERIT TOO?

Culver: WELL, I BELIEVE THAT WE HAVE ABOUT EIGHT COUNTIES IN THIS STATE THAT ARE USING MACHINES THAT ARE SOMEWHAT OUTDATED. FOR EXAMPLE, 7 COUNTIES USE LEVER MACHINES. THEY DON'T MAKE LEVER MACHINES ANYMORE. THOSE PARTS ARE HARD TO FIND TO REPLACE IF A MACHINE BREAKS. THE GOOD NEWS IN IOWA IS ABOUT 80 PERCENT OF OUR PRECINCTS HAVE OPTICAL SCANNERS OR ELECTRONIC VOTING METHODS. SO I THINK WE REALLY NEED TO FOCUS ON THE 10 TO 20 PERCENT OF THE PRECINCTS IN THIS STATE THAT NEED NEW EQUIPMENT, NEW TECHNOLOGY, INSTEAD OF REINVENTING THE WHEEL. I THINK IN 80 PERCENT OF THE PRECINCTS, THINGS WORK EXTREMELY WELL AND THE OPTICAL SCANNING EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN VERY WELL RECEIVED BY THE VOTERS.

Glover: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, BOTH OF YOU HAVE INDICATED THAT WE OUGHT TO UPGRADE VOTING TECHNOLOGY IN THE STATE. WHO IS GOING TO PAY THAT BILL? WILL THE LEGISLATURE?

Metcalf: GOOD QUESTION, BECAUSE THAT IS TRADITIONALLY A COUNTY RESPONSIBILITY.

Glover: BUT IF A STATE STEPS IN AND SAYS YOU HAVE TO MEET THESE STANDARDS, ISN'T IT THE STATE'S RESPONSIBILITIES?

Metcalf: YEAH, I WOULD AGREE.

Glover: SECRETARY CULVER?

Culver: I THINK IT MIGHT BE A COMBINATION OF THE STATE STEPPING IN AND ALSO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT GETTING INVOLVED. SENATOR SCHUMER AND SENATOR BROWNBACK, SENATOR SCHUMER FROM NEW YORK, BROWNBACK FROM KANSAS, HAVE INTRODUCED A BILL AT THE FEDERAL LEVEL IN THE U.S. SENATE THAT WOULD ALLOW $250 MILLION IN FEDERAL GRANTS THAT COULD BE APPLIED ON AN AS-NEEDED BASIS ACROSS THE COUNTRY. AND I THINK THAT'S A START, AND THEN THE STATE OF IOWA MIGHT HAVE TO STEP UP TO THE PLATE AS WELL. BUT IT'S TECHNOLOGY, IT'S TRAINING AND IT'S EDUCATION. IT'S NOT JUST ABOUT MONEY. I THINK WE CAN DO MORE IN THE AREA OF TRAINING OUR ELECTION OFFICIALS AND ALSO EDUCATING VOTERS SO THEY UNDERSTAND HOW TO USE THIS NEW EQUIPMENT.

Yepsen: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, AREN'T YOU WORRIED ABOUT THE EFFECT OF THE SUPREME COURT RULING IN THIS FLORIDA CASE, BECAUSE IF YOU DON'T HAVE EVERYBODY VOTING THE SAME WAY, AREN'T YOU THEN VIOLATING EQUAL PROTECTION STANDARDS SENT DOWN BY THE COURT IN THE FLORIDA CASE? WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO WHEN THE NEXT CLOSE ELECTION COMES ALONG IN IOWA, SOMEBODY CHALLENGES AND SAYS, "I DIDN'T GET A FAIR ELECTION THEY WERE VOTING ONE WAY IN POLK COUNTY AND ANOTHER WAY IN VAN BUREN COUNTY"?

Metcalf: YOU KNOW, THERE IS AN ANALYSIS THAT IS ONGOING NOW BETWEEN WHETHER OR NOT THE LEGISLATURE AND THE CODE IS CONSISTENT. IF YOU REMEMBER IN FLORIDA, THERE WAS SOME QUESTION RAISED BY THE COURTS AS TO WHETHER OR NOT IT WAS CONSISTENT. I THINK THAT'S ONE OF THE THINGS WE NEED TO LOOK AT.

Yepsen: WHAT WILL YOU BEING DOING TO CLEAN THAT UP? Metcalf: FIRST OF ALL, WE NEED TO HAVE A SCAN OF THE CODE TO BE SURE TO ANALYZE THAT THERE AREN'T ANY INCONSISTENCIES. Yepsen: WHAT ABOUT THE QUESTION THAT PEOPLE HAVE ABOUT COMPUTER BALLOTS? AT FIRST GLANCE WE SAY "COMPUTERS ARE GREAT, YOU KNOW, IT'S THE WAVE OF THE FUTURE." AND THEN YOU STOP TO REALIZE WHO PROGRAMS THESE COMPUTERS, WHERE'S THE AUDIT TRAIL? I'VE HEARD SOME CRITICS OF THESE THINGS SAY THAT PERHAPS THE BEST WAY TO DO THIS IS WITH OPTICAL SCANNERS, WHERE AT LEAST YOU STILL HAVE A PAPER RECORD OF A BALLOT THAT WAS COUNTED. DO YOU WANT TO GO TO THESE TOUCH-SCREEN TECHNOLOGIES?

Metcalf: I SPENT SOME TIME THIS WEEK TALKING TO SOME OF THE COUNTY AUDITORS TO LEARN ABOUT THAT. I THINK THAT TOUCH SCREEN HAS SOME PROBLEMS. IT BOTHERS ME A BIT, ESPECIALLY WITH MANY ELDERLY PEOPLE IN IOWA WHO ARE NOT USED TO USING THE COMPUTER. THE OLD MACHINES, TOO, MUST BE CALIBRATED AND SOMETIMES THAT CAN DO IT. SO I THINK WE NEED CAREFUL SCRUTINY OF ALL THE PROCESSES THAT WE USE NOW AND SEE WHETHER OR NOT THOSE QUESTIONS YOU'VE RAISED HAVE MERIT.

Yepsen: SECRETARY CULVER, WHAT ABOUT THE ISSUE? YOU TALK ABOUT MORE COMPUTERIZATION. WHO IS GOING TO PROGRAM THOSE COMPUTERS, AND WHAT HAPPENS IN IF THE COMPUTER CRASHES?

Culver: WELL, I PLAN ON TAKING THIS QUESTION TO THE PEOPLE OF IOWA. WE ARE CONDUCTING FIVE PUBLIC HEARINGS IN THE MONTH OF JANUARY. MY OFFICE IS SPONSORING THESE MEETINGS. WE'RE INVITING ELECTION OFFICIALS, PRECINCT WORKERS AND VOTERS.

Yepsen: SO HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT IT RIGHT NOW?

Culver: WELL, I THINK THAT I AGREE WITH YOU. THERE ARE SOME CONCERNS WITH THE ELECTRONIC VOTING EQUIPMENT. IT IS HIGH TECH. BUT YOU'RE RIGHT, SOMETIMES THERE'S A PROBLEM WITH NOT HAVING AN ACTUAL BALLOT TO LOOK AT. I THINK, AGAIN, ABOUT 75 TO 80 PERCENT OF OUR PRECINCTS HAVE OPTICAL SCANNING EQUIPMENT. IT WORKS EXTREMELY WELL.

Yepsen: SHOULDN'T EVERYBODY GO TO THAT, THEN?

Culver: WELL, I THINK IT'S POSSIBLE THAT WE MIGHT GO TO OPTICAL EQUIPMENT. BUT AGAIN LET'S --

Yepsen: WHAT WOULD WE DO IN THE STATE IF A COMPUTER CRASHED? WE'VE ALL HAD COMPUTERS CRASH ON US.

Culver: WELL, I THINK THAT'S A PRICE WE MIGHT HAVE TO PAY SOMEDAY IF WE DON'T FIX THE SYSTEM, AND I'M GLAD WE'RE HAVING THIS HEALTHY DEBATE AND DISCUSSION HERE TODAY. AND I'LL CONTINUE NEXT MONTH ACROSS THE STATE. I THINK THE VOTERS OF IOWA COULD TELL US WHAT DO THEY LIKE, WHAT MACHINES, WHAT BALLOTS DO THEY PREFER, AND THEN I THINK THE AUDITORS AND LOCAL OFFICIALS SHOULD ACT ACCORDINGLY. BUT FINALLY, I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT TO HAVE LOCAL CONTROL. I RESPECT THE JUDGMENT OF OUR INDEPENDENTLY ELECTED AUDITORS.

Yepsen: THEY HAD LOCAL CONTROL IN FLORIDA AND LOOK WHAT HAPPENED.

Culver: THAT'S RIGHT, BUT I THINK THERE'S -- THEY ALSO HAD PUNCH-CARD BALLOTS IN FLORIDA THAT WE OUTLAWED 25 YEARS AGO IN IOWA, FORTUNATELY.

Glover: BACK UP. YOU RESPECT LOCAL CONTROL BUT YOU'D IMPOSE STATEWIDE STANDARDS. EXPLAIN THAT TO ME.

Culver: I DIDN'T SAY I'M IMPOSING STATEWIDE STANDARDS.

Glover: I BELIEVE YOU SAID YOU FAVORED REQUIRING ALL LOCAL ELECTED OFFICIALS -- YOU DIDN'T?

Culver: I DIDN'T SAY THAT I'D REQUIRE ALL ELECTION OFFICIALS TO HAVE THE SAME MACHINES. I THINK WE SHOULD TALK TO THE VOTERS, SEE WHAT THEY WANT TO DO. SEE WHAT THEY PREFER.

Borg: LET'S GO BACK TO THE VERY BASIC QUESTION, REPRESENTATIVE METCALF. DO WE HAVE POSSIBLY TOO MANY ELECTIONS IN IOWA? IT SEEMS LIKE THERE'S A REFERENDA HERE AND THERE OR A BOND ISSUE, AND THEN WE HAVE THE GENERAL ELECTION, THE PRIMARY, SCHOOL BOARD ELECTIONS, AND SO ON. WHAT DO YOU THINK? CAN WE CONSOLIDATE SOME OF THAT?

Metcalf: I WOULDN'T AGREE WITH THAT AT THIS TIME. I THINK PARTICULARLY THESE SMALL ELECTIONS, WHETHER IT'S A SPECIAL ELECTION OR PERHAPS TO FILL A VACANT SEAT OR WHATEVER, GIVES ME AN OPPORTUNITY TO REACT FAIRLY QUICKLY TO THE SITUATION WHERE THERE IS A VACANCY. I THINK THE SCHOOL BOARD ELECTIONS, I'M GLAD THAT THEY'RE SEPARATE AND THE PRIMARY ELECTIONS, WHEN THEY'RE HELD IN THE SPRING AND JUNE. NO I'M NOT READY TO DO THAT. I THINK SOME OF WHAT THE SECRETARY SAYS IN TERMS OF EDUCATING THE PROCESS MAYBE WILL MAKE IT MORE EFFICIENT.

Borg: IS THERE ANY MERIT, SECRETARY CULVER, IN CONSOLIDATION?

Culver: I THINK SO. WE HAVE ON AVERAGE ONE ELECTION PER WEEK IN THIS STATE. LINN COUNTY HAS HAD AN ELECTION, I BELIEVE, EIGHT MONTHS IN A ROW. THAT CAUSES VOTER FATIGUE. THAT CAUSES SOMETIMES LACK OF INTEREST, AND I AM WORKING ON LEGISLATION THAT WOULD CONSOLIDATE SOME ELECTIONS. I'M WORKING CLOSELY WITH THE AUDITORS ASSOCIATION. BUT I THINK IF WE WANT TO GET MORE PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS, WE CAN'T EXPECT HIGH TURNOUT IF WE HAVE ONE ELECTION PER MONTH IN COUNTIES ACROSS THIS STATE AND NOT TO MENTION THE COST ASSOCIATED WITH CONDUCTING EACH OF THOSE ELECTIONS.

Glover: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, THIS ELECTION HAS RAISED A QUESTION ABOUT THE FUTURE OF THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE. THERE HAVE BEEN SUGGESTIONS THAT THE ELECTORIAL COLLEGE SHOULD BE ELIMINATED OR, FAILING THAT, THAT THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE MODIFIED TO ALLOW SOME APPORTIONMENT OF ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTING. HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT THAT? Metcalf: IT'S INTERESTING. RESEARCH HAS BEEN DONE SHOWING THAT GEORGE BUSH WOULD HAVE GOTTEN 271 ELECTORAL VOTES, IF INDEED, EACH ELECTORAL VOTE WOULD HAVE BEEN APPORTIONED TO EACH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. SO I HAVEN'T SEEN SOMETHING THAT WORKS BETTER YET. I'VE NOT SEEN ANY SUGGESTIONS. I UNDERSTAND THERE'S GREAT CONCERN AFTER THIS PARTICULAR ELECTION. BUT FOR SMALL STATES, ESPECIALLY IF THEY ARE HEAVILY DEMOCRAT OR HEAVILY REPUBLICAN, MIGHT BE IGNORED UNDER OUR NEW SYSTEM ANYWAY. THEY MIGHT SAY, "GEE, IOWA IS ALL REPUBLICAN OR ALL DEMOCRAT, SO WE'RE NOT GOING TO WAIT ANY TIME CAMPAIGNING THERE."

Yepsen: WHAT ABOUT -- IOWA WAS A VERY CLOSE ELECTION.

Metcalf: RIGHT.

Yepsen: IF YOU ALLOCATED ELECTORS BY CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT WITH THE WINNER TAKING THE TWO SENATE ELECTORS, YOU WOULD HAVE HAD A 4/3 SPLIT FOR GORE, WHICH IS A LOT MORE REFLECTIVE OF WHAT IOWANS WERE SAYING THAN GORE GETTING ALL SEVEN.

Metcalf: BUT THIS ANALYSIS OF EVERY SINGLE CONGRESSIONAL --

Yepsen: I'M TALKING ABOUT IOWA. I'M TALKING ABOUT IOWA, WHICH IS SOMETHING YOU CAN DO AS A LEGISLATOR IS TO CHANGE THE WAY WE ALLOCATE ELECTORS. YOU CAN'T ELIMINATE THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE.

Metcalf: THERE WILL BE A BILL INTRODUCED TO DO THAT, AND WE'RE GOING TO GIVE IT CAREFUL SCRUTINY.

Glover: SECRETARY CULVER, SHOULD THAT SYSTEM BE MODIFIED TO ALLOW APPORTIONMENT OF ELECTORS?

Culver: WELL, AS A FORMER HIGH SCHOOL GOVERNMENT TEACHER AND A POLITICAL SCIENCE MAJOR IN COLLEGE, I THINK THIS IS GOING TO BE A FASCINATING DEBATE AND DISCUSSION. AL GORE WON THE POPULAR VOTE BY 539,000 VOTES IN THIS COUNTRY. WHAT DO AMERICAN CITIZENS THINK OF THAT? WHAT DO IOWANS THINK WHEN ONE PERSON WINS THE POPULAR VOTE AND SOMEONE ELSE WINS THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE? IT HASN'T HAPPENED FOR 112 YEARS, SO WE HAVEN'T REALLY HAD THIS DISCUSSION IN RECENT HISTORY. I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT TO HAVE THIS DISCUSSION. AT THE SAME TIME, THOUGH, I LOVE THE FACT THAT WE HAVE A VERY COMPETITIVE STATE HERE. I THINK ABOLISHING THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE WOULD HURT OUR POLITICAL PARTIES. I THINK IT'S GREAT TO HAVE CANDIDATES COME IN HERE AND HAVE THE REPUBLICAN AND DEMOCRATIC PARTY AND THIRD PARTIES REALLY FIGHT FOR THEIR CANDIDATE ON A STATE-BY-STATE BASIS.

Yepsen: WHAT ABOUT ALLOCATING IOWA'S ELECTORS ON THE BASIS OF WHO WINS WHAT CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT?

Culver: WELL, I DON'T THINK THAT'S THE ANSWER NECESSARILY BECAUSE, AS REPRESENTATIVE METCALF SAID, THAT WOULDN'T HAVE CHANGED THE OUTCOME. THAT WOULDN'T HAVE CORRECTED THE PROBLEM WITH ONE PERSON WINNING THE POPULAR VOTE AND ANOTHER PERSON WINNING THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE. SO IF WE'RE GOING TO CHANGE THE SYSTEM AT ALL, LET'S MAKE SURE WE ADDRESS THAT INCONSISTENCY THAT OCCURRED NOVEMBER 7.

Yepsen: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, I WANT TO MOVE ON TO ANOTHER SUBJECT. THIS IS THE LEGISLATURE THAT GETS THE CENSUS NUMBERS BACK AND REAPPORTIONS. YOU REDRAW THE DISTRICT LINES FOR CONGRESS AND THE LEGISLATURE. WILL YOU BE MAKING ANY CHANGES IN THE WAY IOWA DOES THAT?

Metcalf: NO, DAVID. THE PRESIDENT GETS THE FIGURES FROM THE CENSUS BUREAU NEXT WEEK. CONGRESS GETS IT SHORTLY AFTER THAT, AND GOVERNOR VILSACK WILL RECEIVE THE NUMBERS OF THE POPULATION OF THE STATE BY JANUARY 15. THAT STARTS THIS EXCITING AND WONDERFUL PROCESS OF REDISTRICTING. I THINK THAT WHAT WE'VE GOT NOW IS A GOOD SYSTEM. AS YOU KNOW, WE MUST REDRAW CONGRESSIONAL LINES IN THE 100 HOUSE SEATS AND THE 50 SENATE SEATS. THEY MUST BE BASED ON POPULATION. THERE CANNOT BE A VARIANCE OF MORE THAN 1 PERCENT BETWEEN EACH DISTRICT. ALSO, NO RACIAL MINORITY OR LANGUAGE GROUP CAN BE DILUTED IN THAT PROCESS. NO CONSIDERATION CAN BE GIVEN TO WHERE ANY ELECTED OFFICIAL LIVES. NO PARTISAN OR POLITICAL CONSIDERATION CAN BE GIVEN TO EACH RESIDENT OF IOWA. AND FINALLY, NO ELECTION RESULTS FROM THE PAST CAN BE CONSIDERED. THOSE ARE GOOD GUIDELINES. I DON'T WANT TO CHANGE THOSE.

Yepsen: AND WE'VE DONE IT THIS WAY IN IOWA, NOW, THIS WILL BE THE THIRD TIME, CORRECT?

Metcalf: CORRECT.

Yepsen: SO YOU DON'T WANT TO CHANGE ANY OF THOSE RULES OR LAWS OR .. Metcalf: THE ONLY THING THAT CONCERNS ME IS THAT THE CURRENT LAW SAYS THAT THE SMALLEST POLITICAL GOVERNMENT UNIT, LIKE A SMALL CITY, FOR INSTANCE, SHALL NOT BE CHANGED. IF THERE NEEDS TO BE SOME SORT OF SPLINTERING OF A MUNICIPAL AREA, THE LARGER CITIES WOULD BE SPLINTERED FIRST. I'M REALLY CONCERNED THAT COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS BE PRESERVED. SO, FOR INSTANCE, RIGHT AT HOME IN MY DISTRICT IN URBANDALE, WHEN I FIRST CAME IN IT WAS ONE WHOLE DISTRICT. NOW, IT'S TWO. IT'S SPLIT RIGHT DOWN THE MIDDLE.

Yepsen: HAVE YOU GOT TIME TO CHANGE THOSE STANDARDS BEFORE YOU START TINKERING WITH IT.

Metcalf: YES, WE COULD. WE COULD DO THAT.

Yepsen: SECRETARY CULVER, WHAT DO YOU THINK? SHOULD WE BE MAKING ANY CHANGES TO OUR REAPPORTIONMENT SYSTEM?

Culver: WELL, MY OFFICE WILL VERY MUCH INVOLVED IN REDISTRICTING. OUR ROLE AT THE SECRETARY OF STATE'S OFFICE IS TO SUPPORT COUNTIES AND SCHOOL BOARDS AND CITIES IN REDRAWING THEIR LINES. AND I AGREE WITH REPRESENTATIVE METCALF. THIS IS AN EXCITING PROCESS THAT WE GO THROUGH EVERY TEN YEARS. AND I'M LOOKING FORWARD TO BEING A PART OF IT. AND HOPEFULLY WE CAN AGREE IN A BI-PARTISAN WAY ON THE FIRST DRAFT. THAT WOULD BE IDEAL.

Glover: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, LET'S TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THE TIMING OF HOW THIS REAPPORTIONMENT PROCESS IS GOING TO WORK. IT'S LIKELY THAT YOU'LL GET YOUR NUMBERS SOMETIME IN FEBRUARY, MAYBE EVEN EARLY MARCH. THAT'S GOING TO PUT YOU LATE IN THE SESSION BECAUSE IT'S GOING TO TAKE SEVERAL WEEKS TO PUT A MAP TOGETHER AND HAVE PUBLIC HEARINGS. IS IT POSSIBLE TO GET THIS DONE IN A REGULAR SESSION, OR WILL THIS REQUIRE A SPECIAL SESSION?

Metcalf: THE CENSUS BUREAU HAS TOLD IOWA THAT WE WON'T GET OUR FIGURES BEFORE MARCH 1. THE SERVICE BUREAU, THIS NONPARTISAN BUREAU THAT DRAWS UP THE BILL, WILL NEED AT LEAST 60 DAYS. THAT TAKES US TO MAY 1, WHICH IS TRADITIONALLY ABOUT THE END OF THE SESSION FOR THIS YEAR. SO I CAN SEE US DEBATING THE FIRST PLAN IF THAT'S REJECTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OR IF IT'S PASSED BY THE LEGISLATURE AND VETOED BY THE GOVERNOR. THEN I SEE A SPECIAL SESSION LOOMING.

Glover: YOU THINK THERE WILL BE A PRETTY WIDE AGREEMENT TO HAVE THAT SPECIAL SESSION TO GET A PLAN ON THE BOOKS AS EARLY AS POSSIBLE?

Metcalf: WELL, WE'LL HAVE TO IF THEY REJECT THE FIRST PLAN, OBVIOUSLY. BUT I THINK WE'LL STAY IN SESSION TO DEBATE THE FIRST PLAN, WOULD BE MY GUESS.

Glover: SECRETARY CULVER, WHAT'S YOUR VIEW OF THE TIMING OF THIS?

Culver: WELL, I THINK THE SOONER THE BETTER. I HOPE THIS DOESN'T DRAG OUT. I THINK THE SOONER WE GET THIS RESOLVED -- I KNOW THE GOVERNOR IS GOING TO BE WORKING VERY HARD ON THIS AND MAKING IT A PRIORITY NEXT SESSION. AND AGAIN, I THINK IT'S A MATTER OF COMING TOGETHER. IT MIGHT BE A LITTLE BIT OF A PROBLEM. IT COULD BE POLITICALLY BECAUSE THE HOUSE AND THE SENATE ARE BOTH CONTROLLED BY THE REPUBLICANS. BUT AGAIN, MY HOPE IS THAT WE CAN COME TOGETHER AND NOT DRAG THIS OUT. THERE IS A PROCESS WHERE IT COULD END UP IN THE COURTS. IF WE CAN'T AGREE IN A BI-PARTISAN WAY TO THE REDISTRICTING PLAN.

Yepsen: SECRETARY CULVER, WE'VE GOT JUST A FEW MINUTES LEFT AND I WANT TO CHANGE SUBJECTS AGAIN AND GO TO THE CAUCUSES AND THE FUTURE OF THE CAUCUSES. BOTH NATIONAL POLITICAL PARTIES HAVE SAID IOWA'S CAUCUSES GET TO BE FIRST AGAIN. DO YOU SEE ANY CHANGES THAT NEED TO BE MADE IN THE CAUCUSES THEMSELVES?

Culver: YES, WE NEED TO GET MORE IOWANS INVOLVED IN THE FUTURE.

Yepsen: HOW DO YOU DO THAT?

Culver: WELL, I THINK, AGAIN, MAYBE WORKING TO GET MORE YOUNG PEOPLE INVOLVED IS A START. I BELIEVE IN MAKING SOMETHING OUT OF THE OFF-YEAR CAUCUS --

Yepsen: IS THERE ANYTHING THAT NEEDS TO BE DONE STATUTORILY THAT THE LEGISLATURE NEEDS TO DO, OR IS THAT JUST SOMETHING EACH PARTY NEEDS TO WORK ON?

Culver: I THINK IT'S MORE OF A PARTY FUNCTION, AND I WANT TO COMMEND CHAIRMAN TULLY AND CHAIRMAN ROBINSON FOR THEIR EFFORTS TO KEEP THE IOWA CAUCUS FIRST. IT WAS REALLY A BATTLE AND WE SHOULD BE VERY PROUD OF BOTH PARTIES AND THEIR EFFORTS TO KEEP US FIRST IN THE NATION. AND AS A RESULT, LOOK WHAT HAPPENED THIS YEAR. THE ELECTION REALLY WAS DECIDED IN THE MIDWEST. WITH THE EXCEPTION OF WHAT HAPPENED IN FLORIDA, THIS WAS A BATTLE GROUND.

Yepsen: REPRESENTATIVE METCALF, DO YOU SEE ANY NEED TO MAKE CHANGES IN THE CAUCUS PROCESS IN IOWA?

Metcalf: I HEARD TALK OF HAVING THEM ON A SATURDAY, RATHER THAN ONE OF THOSE TERRIBLY COLD IOWA NIGHTS IN FEBRUARY. I THINK THAT HAS MERIT. OTHER THAN THAT, IT'S THE POLITICAL ACTIVISTS AS YOU KNOW, THE REAL DIE-HARDS THAT TURN OUT, I DON'T KNOW THAT WE'RE GOING TO GET A WHOLE MUCH LARGER PARTICIPATION.

Yepsen: YOU KNOW, THAT IDEA ON A SATURDAY GOT FLOATED, AND I HEARD FROM A NUMBER OF JEWISH DEMOCRATS WHO SAID, THAT'S OUR SABBATH.

Metcalf: OH, I HADN'T THOUGHT ABOUT THAT.

Glover: SECRETARY CULVER, ONE OF THE ISSUES THAT'S BEEN TALKED ABOUT ON THE DEMOCRATIC SIDE AND IT'S GOING TO BE A DEMOCRATIC STORY THE NEXT TIME AROUND, IS HAVING A STRAIGHT BODY COUNT AT THE IOWA CAUCUSES AND NOT THIS GOOFY DELEGATE-EQUIVALENT THING. WHAT'S YOUR VIEW ON THAT?

Culver: I THINK WE MIGHT WANT TO LOOK AT HOW WE APPORTION DELEGATES AND LOOK AT THAT FORMULA. I AGREE WITH YOU. IT'S VERY COMPLEX. TRY TO EXPLAIN IT --

Glover: ISN'T IT DIFFICULT TO RUN AN ELECTION WHEN YOU CAN'T TELL PEOPLE WHO WON?

Culver: WELL, WE CAN STILL FIGURE OUT WHO WON OR LOST, BUT IT TAKES A LITTLE TIME, AND FORTUNATELY WE HAVE MATHEMATICIANS THAT HELP US ON THE SPOT THAT NIGHT. BUT I THINK WE CAN SIMPLIFY THAT PROCESS, AND I HOPE WE TAKE A HARD LOOK AT THAT.

Yepsen: WE'VE GOT ABOUT 15 SECONDS LEFT, MR. CULVER. YOUR PARTY WILL HAVE THE CAUCUSES IN 2004. WHO ARE YOU GOING TO SUPPORT FOR PRESIDENT IN THE DEMOCRATIC CAUCUSES?

Culver: WELL, SOME PEOPLE HAVE BEEN SAYING THAT WE SHOULD REELECT GORE IN 2004.

Yepsen: IS THIS AN ENDORSEMENT OF GORE?

Culver: WELL, I'LL TELL YOU, I THINK IT WILL BE INTERESTING TO SEE WHAT HAPPENS. HE'S CERTAINLY -- HE'S AT HIS HIGHEST APPROVAL RATING RIGHT NOW AT 66 PERCENT --

Borg: I'M GOING TO TAKE YOU OFF THE HOOK. WE'RE OUT OF TIME. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR BEING OR GUESTS TODAY. ON OUR NEXT EDITION OF IOWA PRESS, THE FINAL ONE OF THE CALENDAR YEAR OF 2000, WE'LL REVIEW THE TOP NEWS EVENTS OF THE YEAR. IT'S OUR ANNUAL YEAR-ENDING REPORTERS ROUNDTABLE, A HEADLINE REVIEW ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE YEAR'S TOP NEWS STORIES AND LOOKING TO THE EVENTS THAT WE ANTICIPATE IN 2001. THAT WILL BE NEXT SUNDAY AT NOON AND 7:00 HERE ON STATEWIDE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION. AND AS WE CLOSE THIS WEEK'S EDITION, WE PASS ALONG TO YOU AND YOURS, THE VERY BEST DURING THIS HOLIDAY SEASON. IF YOU'RE TRAVELING THIS WEEKEND, TAKE SOME TIME TO BE CAUTIOUS. FROM ALL OF US HERE AT IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION, ESPECIALLY OUR IOWA PRESS CREW, HAPPY HOLIDAYS. I'M DEAN BORG. THANKS FOR JOINING US TODAY.

Narrator: FUNDING FOR IOWA PRESS HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY FRIENDS OF IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION; AND BY THE IOWA BANKERS ASSOCIATION... FOR PERSONAL, BUSINESS, AND COMMERCIAL NEEDS, IOWA BANKS HELP IOWANS REACH THEIR FINANCIAL GOALS; BY THE ASSOCIATION OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY, THE VOICE OF IOWA BUSINESS REPRESENTING THE INTERESTS OF OVER 1,500 IOWA BUSINESSES EMPLOYING 300,000 IOWANS; AND BY THE ASSOCIATED GENERAL CONTRACTORS OF IOWA, THE PUBLIC'S PARTNER IN BUILDING IOWA'S HIGHWAY, BRIDGE, AND MUNICIPAL UTILITY INFRASTRUCTURE.