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Iowa Press #2914
December 7 and 9, 2001

Yepsen: IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY HAS A NEW CEO ON BOARD, AND LIKE OTHER UNIVERSITY PRESIDENTS, THE CHALLENGE IN A TIGHT ECONOMY HAS HIM BEING ASKED TO DO MORE WITH LESS. JOINING US IS IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY'S FOURTEENTH PRESIDENT, DR. GREGORY GEOFFROY, ON THIS EDITION OF "IOWA PRESS."

Narrator: FUNDING FOR "IOWA PRESS" WAS PROVIDED BY: FRIENDS OF IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION; AND BY THE IOWA BANKERS ASSOCIATION... FOR PERSONAL, BUSINESS, AND COMMERCIAL NEEDS, IOWA BANKS HELP IOWANS REACH THEIR FINANCIAL GOALS.

STATEWIDE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION IS CELEBRATING THE 30TH ANNIVERSARY OF "IOWA PRESS," NOW SERVING THE STATE AS IOWA'S LONGEST RUNNING PUBLIC AFFAIRS PROGRAM. WITH THIS WEEK'S EDITION OF "IOWA PRESS," HERE IS DAVID YEPSEN.

Yepsen: GENERALLY SPEAKING, IOWA'S THREE STATE UNIVERSITIES -- THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA IN IOWA CITY, IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY IN AMES, AND THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN IOWA IN CEDAR FALLS -- GET HIGH MARKS FOR MEETING THE OBJECTIVES AND MISSION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN IOWA. BUT TOUGH TIMES ARE AHEAD. BETTER STATED: TOUGH TIMES ARE HERE. THE STATEHOUSE CONSENSUS IS THAT THE REGENTS INSTITUTIONS TOOK HEAVY HITS IN THE RE-HABBED BUDGETS FOR FISCAL 2001 AND FOR FISCAL 2002, AND MORE IS EXPECTED IN 2003, WHEN THE LEGISLATURE SETTLES-UP THE NEW BUDGET BEGINNING IN JANUARY AT THE IOWA STATEHOUSE. NOW, EVERYTHING FROM BUILDING PROJECTS TO FACULTY AND STAFF SALARIES TO GENERAL MAINTENANCE OF UNIVERSITY FACILITIES ARE AFFECTED. IT MAKES A DIFFICULT JOB THAT MUCH TOUGHER. AND IT'S IN THAT ENVIRONMENT THAT DR. GREGORY GEOFFROY CAME IN JULY TO HIS NEW JOB AS PRESIDENT OF IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY. DR. GEOFFROY, WELCOME TO IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION AND TO "IOWA PRESS." IT'S GOOD TO HAVE YOU WITH US.

Geoffroy: IT'S GOOD TO BE HERE.

Yepsen: ALSO WITH US AT THE "IOWA PRESS" TABLE ARE KAY HENDERSON OF "RADIO IOWA" AND MIKE GLOVER OF "THE ASSOCIATED PRESS."

Glover: PRESIDENT GEOFFROY, IT'S A GIVEN THAT BUDGET CUTS ARE GOING TO BE COMING IN THE NEXT BUDGET YEAR, JUST AS THEY HAPPENED THIS YEAR. WILL ANYONE NOTICE THE BUDGET CUTS AT IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY? STUDENTS? PARENTS? AND IF SO, HOW?

Geoffroy: WELL, WE'RE ALREADY BEGINNING TO NOTICE THE BUDGETS CUTS. AS AN EXAMPLE, THIS YEAR WE HAVE 26 FEWER FACULTY MEMBERS TEACHING AT THE UNIVERSITY AND SOMETHING LIKE A THOUSAND ADDITIONAL STUDENTS COMPARED TO LAST YEAR, AND THAT HAS AN IMPACT. WE'VE ALSO HAD TO SCALE BACK ON THE VARIETY OF COURSES THAT WE OFFER AT THE UNIVERSITY, AS WELL AS INCREASE THE SIZE OF SOME OF OUR COURSES A BIT TO ACCOMMODATE THE GROWTH IN THE NUMBER OF STUDENTS AND THE DROP-OFF IN THE NUMBER OF FACULTY MEMBERS.

Glover: WELL, THERE ARE THOSE WHO SAY CUTS ARE EVERYWHERE IN STATE GOVERNMENT, THE BUDGET IS TIGHT, THE REVENUES ARE DOWN, THE ECONOMY IS SOUR. WHAT'S WRONG WITH THE UNIVERSITY HAVING TO CUT BACK IN THAT ENVIRONMENT?

Geoffroy: WELL, I THINK THAT IT'S DIFFICULT TO DO, BUT I THINK THE UNIVERSITY HAS TO CARRY ITS SHARE OF THE LOAD IN THESE KINDS OF BUDGET TIMES. I TELL PEOPLE ON CAMPUS THAT THIS IS A BUDGET CYCLE. WE'RE GOING THROUGH THE DOWN PERIOD OF THE CYCLE. THE CYCLE WILL TURN AROUND. THERE WILL BE GOOD TIMES AHEAD. IT'S IMPORTANT TO KEEP FOCUSED ON THE LONG-TERM GOALS AS WE DEAL WITH THE BUDGET TIGHTENING THAT'S OCCURRING RIGHT NOW.

Henderson: WHEN YOU BECAME PRESIDENT, YOU SAID THAT ONE OF YOUR GOALS WAS TO INCREASE THE FOUR-YEAR GRADUATION RATE, WHICH IS SOMETHING LIKE 62 PERCENT NOW. YOU WANT AT LEAST 70 PERCENT OF STUDENTS TO GRADUATE IN FOUR YEARS. HOW ARE THESE CUTS GOING TO AFFECT THE ABILITY OF STUDENTS TO GET THAT DEGREE IN FOUR YEARS?

Geoffroy: WELL, WE HOPE IT WON'T HAVE A HUGE IMPACT. WE'RE GOING TO WORK VERY HARD TO MAKE SURE THAT THE CORE COURSES, THE KEY COURSES THAT STUDENTS NEED TO COMPLETE THEIR DEGREES ARE STILL OFFERED AND THERE ARE A SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF SEATS OFFERED IN THOSE COURSES. THAT IS AN IMPORTANT OBJECTIVE BECAUSE, IN THE END, THE GREATEST MEASURE OF SUCCESS OF THE UNIVERSITY IS HOW MANY STUDENTS FINISH THEIR DEGREES.

Henderson: YOU MENTIONED THAT THERE WILL BE BIGGER CLASSES. WILL THERE BE COURSE REDUCTIONS WHERE THERE WILL BE DISCIPLINES WHICH ARE NOT TAUGHT ANYMORE AT IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY?

Geoffroy: I THINK IT'S LIKELY THAT AS A RESULT OF THE PROCESS THAT WE'RE GOING THROUGH AS WE'RE PUTTING INTO PLACE PLANS FOR NEXT FISCAL YEAR, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE BUDGET REDUCTION THAT WE'VE RECEIVED MIDYEAR THIS YEAR AND WHAT WE ANTICIPATE WILL PROBABLY HAPPEN IN THE LEGISLATIVE SESSION AND THE BUDGET REDUCTION NEXT YEAR, THAT THERE WILL BE SOME ACADEMIC PROGRAMS THAT WILL BE ELIMINATED.

Henderson: SUCH AS?

Geoffroy: WELL, THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, FOR EXAMPLE, IS FLOATING A PROPOSAL THAT THEY ARE SERIOUSLY EVALUATING, OF ELIMINATING, THREE OF THEIR MAJORS: ENGINEERING MECHANICS, ENGINEERING OPERATIONS, AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE. NOW, THOSE ARE THREE OF THE SMALLER MAJORS, LOWER ENROLLMENTS, AND NOT ABSOLUTELY CRITICAL TO THE SUCCESS OF AN ENGINEERING COLLEGE. BUT THAT ILLUSTRATES WHAT WE'RE GOING THROUGH, REALLY, ALL OVER THE CAMPUS AS WE EVALUATE OUR PRIORITIES, TRYING TO KEEP FOCUSED ON THE HIGHEST PRIORITY AREAS, THE MOST CENTRAL AREAS, AND LOOKING FOR LOWER-PRIORITY ACTIVITIES THAT WE CAN DIMINISH.

Glover: PRESIDENT GEOFFROY, MAYBE YOU'VE BEGUN TO ANSWER THIS QUESTION, BUT NOT TOO MANY YEARS AGO, THE REGENTS SYSTEM IN THIS STATE WENT THROUGH A LENGTHY AND FAIRLY CONTROVERSIAL PROCESS OF STUDYING DUPLICATIONS BETWEEN THE MAJOR COLLEGES. IS IT YOUR VIEW THAT THE DUPLICATION ISSUE HAS BEEN SETTLED? IS THERE MORE TO DO TO MAKE SURE THAT COLLEGES AREN'T DUPLICATING EACH OTHER? WHERE ARE YOU IN THAT WHOLE PROCESS?

Geoffroy: I THINK IF YOU LOOK AT THE REGENTS INSTITUTIONS AND ASK THE QUESTION A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENTLY -- IS THERE UNNECESSARY DUPLICATION? -- AND I DON'T THINK YOU'D FIND VERY MUCH. UNNECESSARY IS THE KEY WORD BECAUSE, FOR EXAMPLE, EACH OF OUR UNIVERSITIES HAS A COLLEGE OF EDUCATION. EACH OF OUR UNIVERSITIES TRAINS TEACHERS. NOW, IN TODAY'S WORLD IN WHICH WE HAVE A TEACHER SHORTAGE, I WOULD ARGUE THAT THAT'S NECESSARY DUPLICATION BECAUSE WE NEED TO PRODUCE MORE TEACHERS, ALL OF US. BUT IF YOU LOOK FOR AREAS WHERE THERE'S UNNECESSARY DUPLICATION, I THINK IT WOULD BE VERY MINIMAL, MOSTLY AROUND THE EDGES.

Glover: THE ARGUMENT BEING THAT EACH SCHOOL IS GOING TO TEACH HISTORY AND ENGLISH AND THINGS LIKE THAT, BECAUSE WHEN YOU GO TO COLLEGE, YOU JUST STUDY THAT.

Geoffroy: THAT'S CORRECT. I MEAN THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA, FOR EXAMPLE, OFFERS A FULL-RANGE BROAD Ph.D. IN ENGLISH AND HISTORY. IOWA STATE ONLY OFFERS A Ph.D. IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND IN ENGLISH AND SCIENTIFIC WRITING.

Glover: OKAY. THERE'S A LOT OF COMPLAINTS AT THE MAJOR COLLEGES ABOUT THE TIME THE PROFESSORS SPEND IN CLASSROOMS. HAS THAT BEEN AN ISSUE YOU'VE DEALT WITH, YOU'VE HEARD ABOUT? AND IF SO, WHAT ARE YOU DOING ABOUT THAT?

Geoffroy: WELL, IT'S BEEN AN ISSUE THAT, OF COURSE, HAS BEEN AROUND FOR QUITE A LONG TIME. AND WHAT MANY PEOPLE DON'T UNDERSTAND IS HOW MUCH EFFORT GOES INTO TEACHING A PARTICULAR CLASS THAT HAS TO OCCUR OUTSIDE OF THE CLASS, NOT ONLY LECTURE PREPARATION BUT OFFICE HOURS AND INDIVIDUAL ONE-ON-ONE INTERACTION WITH STUDENTS. AND ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO DO IS TO GET ENGAGED WITH RESEARCH AND SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES WITH FACULTY MEMBERS. AND OF COURSE, THAT REALLY IS A ONE-ON-ONE TUTORIAL THAT PROFESSORS HAVE WITH STUDENTS. AND THAT'S A VERY, VERY VALUABLE PART OF A STUDENT'S EDUCATION.

Yepsen: DR. GEOFFROY, MIKE ASKED ABOUT THE DUPLICATION ISSUE AMONG THE THREE STATE UNIVERSITIES. BUT WHAT ABOUT THE REST OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN IOWA? IS THE INFRASTRUCTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THIS STATE NOT OVERBUILT WITH 3 STATE UNIVERSITIES, 15 COMMUNITY COLLEGES, 30 SOME PRIVATE COLLEGES THAT GET STATE RESOURCES? WHAT ABOUT THE COORDINATION AMONG ALL OF YOU? WE SEE COURSES OFFERED AT DMACC IN ANKENY THAT ARE THE SAME COURSES OFFERED 20 MILES UP THE ROAD IN AMES. WHAT ABOUT THAT SORT OF DUPLICATION?

Geoffroy: WELL, I THINK THAT, BY AND LARGE, FROM WHAT I CAN TELL, MY LIMITED EXPERIENCE, THERE'S PRETTY GOOD COORDINATION OF ACTIVITIES. I'M ON THE DES MOINES HIGHER EDUCATION COOPERATIVE, WHICH BRINGS TOGETHER DRAKE, THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA, NORTHERN IOWA, IOWA STATE, SIMPSON COLLEGE, AND DMACC, AND DISCUSSING WAYS IN WHICH WE CAN COLLABORATE AND INTERACT IN PROVIDING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES HERE IN THE DES MOINES AREA. THERE ARE MANY COURSES AND PROGRAMS THAT ARE OFFERED AT THE COMMUNITY COLLEGES THAT ARE VERY DIFFERENT AND DISTINCT FROM WE OFFER AT THE THREE REGENTS UNIVERSITIES. THERE MIGHT BE SOME OVERLAP IN SOME OF THE BASIC CORE COURSES. BUT AS WAS POINTED OUT, WE NEED THOSE AT OUR INSTITUTIONS, AS WELL AS THE COMMUNITY COLLEGES.

Yepsen: CAN WE EXPECT TO SEE SOME SAVINGS THERE? I MEAN THE CENSUS BUREAU TELLS US THAT IOWA'S PER CAPITA LEVELS OF SUPPORT FOR HIGHER EDUCATION RANK ABOUT FIFTH, SIXTH, SEVENTH IN THE COUNTRY. SO AT THE SAME TIME YOU'RE CRYING FOR MONEY, THE PEOPLE OF IOWA ARE SAYING, "MY GOODNESS, WE'RE PUTTING A LOT INTO HIGHER EDUCATION RIGHT NOW."

Geoffroy: I THINK WE HAVE TO ALL LOOK FOR WAYS TO INCREASE OUR EFFICIENCIES. THAT'S ONE THING THAT THESE BUDGET CHALLENGES ARE CLEARLY DOING. THEY'RE FORCING ALL OF US TO MAKE THOSE KINDS OF DECISIONS. I SPOKE LAST NIGHT TO A GROUP OF FACULTY AND STUDENTS ABOUT THE LONG-TERM IMPACT OF DISTANCE EDUCATION ON UNIVERSITIES AND HOW THAT WILL PROBABLY FORCE INSTITUTIONS TO BE MUCH MORE STRATEGIC IN WHAT KIND OF COURSES THEY OFFER AND WHAT KIND OF DISCIPLINES THEY HAVE AND TO SHARE OTHER COURSES WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS.

Glover: TO WHAT EXTENT IS YOUR FUTURE BASED ON FOCUSING ON GROUPS OTHER THAN THAT GROUP OF KIDS COMING OUT OF HIGH SCHOOL, FOCUSING ON DISTANCE LEARNING, FOCUSING ON NONTRADITIONAL STUDENTS, SETTING-UP COLLABORATIVE ARRANGEMENTS WITH OTHER UNIVERSITIES TO OFFER COURSES FOR PEOPLE DOING MID-CAREER CHANGES? TO WHAT EXTENT IS THAT PART OF YOUR FUTURE?

Geoffroy: WELL, I THINK THAT WILL BE AN IMPORTANT PART. I THINK AS FAR AS I CAN PROJECT IN THE FUTURE, IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY WILL STILL BE A UNIVERSITY THAT SERVES MAINLY 18- TO 24-YEAR-OLD STUDENTS WHO COME TO CAMPUS. BUT THERE ARE IMPORTANT CONSTITUENCIES THAT ARE LOCATION-BOUND OR, FOR ONE REASON OR ANOTHER, CANNOT MAKE IT TO CAMPUS. AND WE NEED TO TRY TO SERVE THOSE WHERE WE HAVE SPECIAL EXPERTISE AND SPECIAL PROGRAMS TO OFFER VIA DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THERE ARE ALSO SOME MIDWEST COLLABORATIVES THAT WE'RE DEVELOPING, SOME VERY SPECIALIZED DEGREE PROGRAMS THAT ARE BEING OFFERED -- CO-OFFERED BY A CONSORTIUM OF UNIVERSITIES THROUGH THE MIDWEST VIA DISTANCE EDUCATION METHODS. AND WE'RE PARTICIPATING IN AT LEAST ONE OF THOSE THAT I KNOW ABOUT. I CAN'T REMEMBER THE EXACT NAME OF THE PROGRAM, BUT I'VE SEEN A DEMONSTRATION OF IT.

Henderson: RECENTLY, THE BOARD OF REGENTS HAS APPROVED AN 18.5-PERCENT INCREASE IN TUITION NEXT ACADEMIC YEAR FOR INSTATE STUDENTS. THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN TUITION RATE FOR THE PRESENT ACADEMIC YEAR, YET YOU HAVE RECORD ENROLLMENT. IS THE MARKET TELLING YOU THAT TUITION CAN INCREASE THAT SIGNIFICANTLY AND THE MARKET WILL BEAR IT?

Geoffroy: WELL, I THINK SO. WE'LL HAVE TO, OF COURSE, SEE HOW IT ALL PLAYS OUT. THE TUITION AT THE REGENTS INSTITUTIONS IS LOW COMPARED TO NEIGHBORING STATES. FOR EXAMPLE, OUR TUITION AND FEES THIS YEAR ARE ABOUT $3,400. AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA AND THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, TUITION AND FEES ARE ABOUT $5,700, MUCH HIGHER. SO WE'RE NEAR THE BOTTOM OF WHAT WE CALL OUR PEER GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS IN TUITION. BUT TUITION IS ALSO GOING UP EVERYWHERE. OVER THIS TWO-YEAR PERIOD, MINNESOTA WILL INCREASE ITS TUITION BY ABOUT 27 PERCENT. IOWA STATE'S TUITION WILL GO UP BY ABOUT 29 PERCENT OVER THIS TWO-YEAR PERIOD, SO IT'S COMPARABLE. ILLINOIS IS ALSO INCREASING ITS TUITION AT A RAPID RATE WITH A TUITION SURCHARGE FOR NEW STUDENTS. SO IN THE TUITION MARKETPLACE, I THINK WE WILL MAINTAIN OUR COMPETITIVENESS.

Henderson: WHAT ABOUT PARENTS AND STUDENTS THEMSELVES WHO ARE TRYING TO PLAN TO PAY THAT TUITION? CAN YOU OFFER THEM IN THE FUTURE SOME PREDICTABILITY, FOR INSTANCE, PERHAPS TYING ALL TUITION INCREASES TO THE HIGHER EDUCATION PRICE INDEX OR SAYING WHEN YOU COME IN AS A FIRST-YEAR STUDENT, THAT TUITION RATE THAT YOU PAY THAT YEAR YOU'LL PAY ALL FOUR YEARS IF YOU GET YOUR DEGREE? ARE THOSE THE KINDS OF THINGS THAT YOU MIGHT CONSIDER?

Geoffroy: IT WOULD BE GREAT IF WE COULD DO THAT. OF COURSE, THE PROBLEM IS THE ECONOMY AND JUST NOT KNOWING WHAT'S GOING TO HAPPEN TO THE ECONOMY. IF WE COULD PREDICT THE ECONOMY OVER THAT PERIOD, THEN IT WOULD MAKE PERFECT SENSE TO BE ABLE TO PREDICT THE TUITION INCREASES.

Yepsen: WHY ISN'T IT A REASONABLE GOAL TO SAY THAT THE TUITIONS IN IOWA'S THREE STATE UNIVERSITIES SHOULD BE AT THE AVERAGE LEVEL OF PEER INSTITUTIONS?

Geoffroy: I THINK THAT IS A REASONABLE GOAL.

Yepsen: OVER WHAT PERIOD OF TIME DO YOU GET THERE?

Geoffroy: WELL, I THINK YOU'D WANT TO TRY TO DO THAT OVER PROBABLY A FIVE-YEAR PERIOD OF TIME WOULD BE APPROPRIATE, IF WE SET THAT GOAL, BECAUSE YOU DON'T WANT TO TRY TO MAKE IT ALL IN ONE YEAR. THAT WOULD BE INAPPROPRIATE.

Yepsen: SO IF OTHER -- IF YOUR OTHER PEER INSTITUTIONS ARE RAISING THEIR TUITIONS AT, SAY, 25 PERCENT AND YOU'RE RAISING YOURS AT 27, IOWANS CAN EXPECT TO SEE SOME PRETTY BIG TUITION INCREASES HERE IN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS IF YOU'RE GOING TO REACH THAT GOAL; IS THAT CORRECT?

Geoffroy: WELL, THE REGENTS HAVE NOT SET THAT AS A GOAL FOR THE INSTITUTIONS. AND I THINK ANOTHER WAY TO LOOK AT THAT IS OUR TUITION AS A FRACTION OF PER CAPITA INCOME. AS YOU KNOW, THE PER CAPITA INCOME IN IOWA IS NOT AS HIGH AS IN SOME OTHER STATES. IN IOWA, OUR TUITION IS ABOUT 12 PERCENT OF THE AVERAGE PER CAPITA INCOME. IN OUR PEER STATES, IT'S ABOUT 14.3 PERCENT. SO ON THAT BASIS, WE'RE ALSO LOW. BUT THAT, I THINK, WOULD PROBABLY BE A BETTER WAY TO SET THE TARGET.

Yepsen: BUT IT'S ALSO TRUE A DEGREE FROM IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY IS WORTH A LOT TO SOMEBODY OVER THEIR LIFETIME IN TERMS OF THEIR INCOME.

Geoffroy: YOU BET IT IS. YOU BET IT IS.

Glover: NOT TO BE DREDGING-UP TOO MUCH HISTORY HERE, BUT NOT LONG AGO THERE WAS YET ANOTHER DEBATE IN THE REGENTS INSTITUTIONS ABOUT FACULTY SALARIES. THERE WAS A BIG PUSH AND THE STATE SPENT A LOT OF MONEY TO TRY TO GET FACULTY SALARIES UP TO THE AVERAGE WITH YOUR PEER INSTITUTIONS. GIVEN THE CURRENT BUDGET ENVIRONMENT, IS THAT STILL A REALISTIC GOAL?

Geoffroy: IT'S STILL -- IT HAS TO BE A GOAL BECAUSE IF WE'RE GOING TO COMPETE WITH THOSE INSTITUTIONS -- AND WE DO COMPETE NATIONALLY FOR FACULTY MEMBERS -- WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE THAT WE PAY SALARIES THAT ARE COMPETITIVE WITH WHAT'S BEING OFFERED. WE'VE BEGUN TO SLIP. WE'RE NO LONGER AT THE MIDPOINT. WE'RE NEAR THE BOTTOM OF OUR PEER GROUP, SORT OF DEPENDING WHICH DATA SETS YOU USE AND HOW ACCURATE YOU DO THE ANALYSIS. BUT WE'RE CLEARLY IN THE BOTTOM THIRD, IF NOT AT THE BOTTOM, AND THAT OF GREAT CONCERN.

Glover: HOW LONG HAS THAT BEEN HAPPENING? OVER WHAT PERIOD OF TIME?

Geoffroy: WELL, IT'S BEEN DECREASING OVER THE LAST SEVERAL YEARS, MAINLY BECAUSE OF THE BUDGET TIGHTENING. BUT IT'S A HIGH PRIORITY FOR US TO TRY TO FIND SOME WAY TO ADDRESS.

Glover: CAN YOU SENSE IT IN FACULTY MORALE?

Geoffroy: I SENSE IS IT IN -- NOT SO MUCH IN FACULTY MORALE, BUT CERTAINLY IN OUR ABILITY TO RECRUIT FACULTY AND THEN TO KEEP FACULTY. WE JUST LOST TWO SOCIOLOGISTS TO RICE UNIVERSITY WHO LEFT IN PART BECAUSE THEY FELT THEIR SALARIES WERE NOT COMPETITIVE AND CERTAINLY NOT COMPETITIVE WITH WHAT RICE WAS OFFERING THEM TO INDUCE THEM TO MOVE.

Glover: AND WE'RE HEADING INTO THE WINTER IN IOWA, AND TEXAS IS SUNNY.

Geoffroy: THAT'S RIGHT. BUT IOWA IS A GREAT STATE AND THERE IS A SPECIAL CULTURE HERE, AND IT'S A WONDERFUL PLACE TO LIVE.

Henderson: LAST SPRING THE ATHLETIC DEPARTMENT ANNOUNCED THAT MEN'S SWIMMING AND BASEBALL WOULD BE ENDING. NO MORE ISU COMPETITION IN THOSE SPORTS. IS THE ATHLETIC DEPARTMENT BUDGET OKAY, OR SHOULD WE EXPECT MORE SPORTS TO BE ELIMINATED?

Geoffroy: IT'S OKAY THIS YEAR. IT'S OKAY NEXT YEAR. WE'RE TRYING TO DO THE BEST WE CAN AT PROJECTING THE YEARS AHEAD AFTER THAT. AND OF COURSE, A LOT DEPENDS ON HOW SUCCESSFUL THE ATHLETIC TEAMS ARE, BECAUSE WHEN YOU HAVE A SUCCESSFUL FOOTBALL TEAM, FOR EXAMPLE, IT BRINGS IN A LOT OF EXTRA REVENUES THAT HELP ADDRESS THE BUDGET. AND SO, AS I SAID, WE'RE OKAY THIS YEAR. IT LOOKS BALANCED NEXT YEAR. THE OUT YEARS ARE A LITTLE BIT LESS CERTAIN.

Henderson: YOUR PREDECESSOR BELIEVED THAT THE PRESTIGE OF A UNIVERSITY WAS IN SOME WAYS LINKED TO THE ATHLETIC SUCCESS OF THE UNIVERSITY TEAMS. DO YOU SHARE THAT VIEW THAT ATHLETIC SUCCESS IS SOMETHING THAT'S IMPORTANT AT IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY?

Geoffroy: I WOULDN'T SAY IT QUITE THAT WAY. I WOULDN'T SAY THAT THE PRESTIGE OF THE UNIVERSITY IS LINKED TO ATHLETIC SUCCESS. I WOULD SAY THAT THE OVERALL REPUTATION OF THE UNIVERSITY, THE VISIBILITY OF THE INSTITUTION IS HIGHLY CORRELATED WITH ATHLETIC SUCCESS. AND IT'S IMPORTANT THAT WE DO TRY TO SUCCEED IN OUR ATHLETIC PROGRAMS BUT ALSO THAT WE PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO PLAYING BY THE RULES AND HAVE A PROGRAM WITH VERY HIGH INTEGRITY, WHICH WE DO.

Glover: THE STATUS OF VARIOUS ELEMENTS OF STATE GOVERNMENT AROUND THE STATEHOUSE IS OFTEN MEASURED IN THE HALLS OF THE STATEHOUSE BY THE PRIORITY LISTING OF PEOPLE UP THERE, BOTH PEOPLE IN THE LEGISLATURE AND IN THE GOVERNOR'S OFFICE. CLEARLY THE REGENTS HAVE FALLEN ON HARD TIMES UP THERE, AS EVIDENCED BY THE WILLINGNESS OF A REPUBLICAN LEGISLATURE AND A DEMOCRATIC GOVERNOR TO CUT DEEPLY INTO YOUR BUDGETS. WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT THAT? WHAT CAN YOU DO TO REPAIR THESE TATTERED RELATIONS YOU'VE GOT WITH THE POLITICAL ESTABLISHMENT OF THIS STATE?

Geoffroy: WELL, I DON'T FEEL THAT. THE MINOR ACTIONS DON'T MAKE ME FEEL THAT THOSE RELATIONS ARE TATTERED. I THINK WHAT WE'RE SEEING IS JUST A RESULT OF THE REVENUE DECLINE IN THE STATE OF IOWA.

Glover: BUT THERE ARE CERTAIN ELEMENTS OF STATE GOVERNMENT THAT HAVE BEEN, IN ESSENCE, HELD HARMLESS THROUGH ALL THAT. BOTH THE REPUBLICANS RUNNING THE LEGISLATURE AND THE GOVERNOR ARGUE THAT ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION OUGHT TO BE THEIR PRIORITY. THEY STUCK SOME MONEY BACK INTO THE DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES, ALL THE WHILE THE REGENTS FELT THE FULL WEIGHT OF THE CUTS. IN OTHER WORDS, WHEN THEY WENT TO REPAIR THINGS, YOU WEREN'T ON THE LIST.

Geoffroy: YES, THAT'S CORRECT. OF COURSE WE FELT THAT AND NOTICED THAT. YOU KNOW, WHAT WE NEED TO DO IS JUST DO THE VERY BEST JOB WE CAN OF CONVINCING FOLKS OF THE VALUE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN IOWA AND THE VALUE OF THE REGENTS INSTITUTIONS AND WHAT WE DO FOR THE STATE AND FOR THE CITIZENS. AND OF COURSE, WE WORK HARD AT THAT ALL THE TIME.

Henderson: AS THE HEAD OF IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY, HOW DO YOU ADDRESS THE JEALOUSY THAT FOLKS IN AREAS OF THE STATE WHICH ARE NOT AS ECONOMICALLY SUCCESSFUL AS AMES AND IOWA CITY FEEL TOWARDS THE FOLKS WHO LIVE IN AMES AND IOWA CITY? HOW DO YOU ADDRESS THAT?

Geoffroy: WELL, I THINK ONE THING THAT'S IMPORTANT FOR US TO DO, PARTICULARLY AT IOWA STATE, BECAUSE WE ARE A LAND-GRANT INSTITUTION, IN MANY WAYS THE BOUNDARIES OF OUR CAMPUS ARE THE BOUNDARIES OF THE STATE, SO IT'S IMPORTANT FOR US TO GET OUT AND COMMUNICATE AND TAKE OUR KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE AND OUR EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AS WIDELY AS WE CAN THROUGHOUT THE STATE OF IOWA. AND I THINK WE DO A VERY GOOD JOB OF THAT THROUGH OUR VARIOUS EXTENSION ACTIVITIES AND OTHER PROGRAMS.

Glover: YOU, ALONG WITH OTHER ELEMENTS WITHIN STATE GOVERNMENT, HAVE HAD TOUGH TIMES LATELY BECAUSE THE ECONOMY HAS BEEN PRETTY SOFT. IT'S BEEN PRETTY SOFT FOR A WHILE. WHAT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OR THE ROLE OF THE REGENTS INSTITUTIONS IN HELPING TO JUMP-START THAT ECONOMY? SHOULD YOU BE DOING BUSINESS TERMINATION-TYPE THINGS? SHOULD YOU BE DOING BUSINESS PARKS? SHOULD YOU BE STARTING BUSINESSES? HOW SHOULD THAT WORK?

Geoffroy: PROBABLY ALL OF THOSE. I THINK, OF COURSE, ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT THINGS WE DO IS PRODUCE TALENTED PEOPLE TO ENTER THE WORK FORCE. AND, ULTIMATELY, IT'S THE PEOPLE THAT WILL MAKE THE DIFFERENCE. BUT CERTAINLY, WE HAVE AN IMPORTANT ROLE TO PLAY IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER. IOWA STATE HAS HISTORICALLY HAD A VERY, VERY STRONG TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SUCCESS. WE HAVE A RESEARCH PARK THAT IS DOING EXTREMELY WELL COMPARED TO MOST RESEARCH PARKS. WE FORMED -- I THINK ABOUT 150 COMPANIES HAVE EITHER BEEN AFFILIATED WITH OR OCCUPIED SPACE IN THAT RESEARCH PARK, AND ABOUT TWO-THIRDS OF THOSE HAVE BEEN CONNECTED WITH RESEARCH OF THE FACULTY AT IOWA STATE. AND THEN ANOTHER 20 PERCENT OR SO ARE THERE BECAUSE THEY WANT TO BE CLOSE TO PARTICULAR EXPERTISE IN A RESEARCH LABORATORY. WE ALSO, THROUGH OUR EXTENSION ACTIVITIES, ENGAGE MANUFACTURING FIRMS ALL ACROSS THE STATE OF IOWA, TO HELP THEM SUCCEED, STAY IN BUSINESS, DO A BETTER JOB, AND HELPING SOLVE THEIR PROBLEMS. THAT'S AN IMPORTANT ROLE THAT WE HAVE.

Glover: AT ONE POINT THERE WERE PEOPLE IN THE UNIVERSITY WHO ARGUED THAT THE UNIVERSITY SHOULDN'T BE INVOLVED IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BECAUSE THAT WAS PUTTING THE UNIVERSITIES IN SORT OF COMMERCIAL BUSINESS OF THE STATE'S ECONOMY. YOU DON'T SHARE THAT VIEW?

Geoffroy: I DON'T SHARE THAT AND I DON'T THINK YOU'LL FIND THAT VIEW SHARED MUCH OF ANYWHERE IN HIGHER EDUCATION THESE DAYS.

Henderson: HOG LOTS ARE A BIG ISSUE IN IOWA, ECONOMICALLY, SOCIALLY. REPUBLICAN LEGISLATORS THIS WEEK HINTED THAT THERE WAS SOME BIG BREAKTHROUGH ON THE HORIZON IN REGARDS TO DEALING WITH THE ODOR FROM THE MANURE THAT ARE PRODUCED BY THOSE LARGE-SCALE LIVESTOCK OPERATIONS. CAN YOU TELL US IF THERE'S A BREAKTHROUGH COMING FROM YOUR CAMPUS?

Geoffroy: NOT THAT I KNOW OF. YESTERDAY I TALKED TO ONE OF OUR CAMPUS EXPERTS, AND HE DIDN'T HINT THAT THERE WERE ANY BREAKTHROUGHS COMING. THIS, OF COURSE, IS A MAJOR PROBLEM AND IT'S NOT ONE THAT'S GOING TO BE ADDRESSED OVERNIGHT.

Glover: THE UNIVERSITY HAS GOTTEN SOME HEAT BY PEOPLE WHO SAY -- AS YOU MENTIONED EARLIER, YOU'RE A LAND-GRANT UNIVERSITY. THE GOAL OF THE UNIVERSITY IS TO BE A PREMIERE AG RESEARCH UNIVERSITY, AND YET YOU HAVEN'T BEEN ALL THAT ACTIVE IN THIS WHOLE HOG-LOT ISSUE. HOW DO YOU RESPOND TO CRITICISM YOU SHOULD HAVE DONE MORE?

Geoffroy: WELL, WE HAVE BEEN ACTIVE. WE HAVE DONE A NUMBER OF THINGS. WE HAVE SEVERAL FACULTY MEMBERS AND A NUMBER OF STUDENTS WHO ARE WORKING ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THIS PROBLEM, AND I THINK WE HAVE -- WE'VE NOT SOLVED THE PROBLEM. MANURE STINKS AND IT'S NOT LIKELY THAT WE'RE GOING TO FIND A MAGIC BULLET TO MAKE ODOR-FREE MANURE, BUT THERE IS A LOT THAT WE'VE LEARNED ABOUT EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, INFORMATION THAT WE HAVE COMMUNICATED WIDELY TO FARMERS. ONE OF OUR, I THINK, VERY IMPORTANT RECENT ADVANCES IS WE'VE DEVELOPED A WAY TO VERY ACCURATELY MEASURE AND STANDARDIZE HOG ODORS. SO IF YOU'RE GOING TO -- THAT'S VERY IMPORTANT BECAUSE IF YOU'RE GOING TO EVALUATE DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT METHODS, YOU'VE GOT TO HAVE A STANDARD WAY TO EVALUATE THOSE ODORS. AND I THINK THIS WILL BE VERY HELPFUL AS WE EVALUATE A NUMBER OF OPTIONS.

Glover: IOWA STATE CAME INTO THE LIMELIGHT DURING THIS RECENT ANTHRAX SCARE BECAUSE ONE OF THE STRAINS OF ANTHRAX INVOLVED WAS KNOWN AS THE AMES STRAIN, HAVING BEEN DEVELOPED IN AMES AT IOWA STATE. HAS ALL THE ANTHRAX AT IOWA STATE IN OUR LAB BEEN DESTROYED?

Geoffroy: ALL OF THE ANTHRAX IN OUR VETERINARY SCHOOL HAS BEEN DESTROYED. THERE PROBABLY ARE STILL STRAINS OUT AT THE USDA FACILITY, BUT THAT'S NOT PART OF THE UNIVERSITY.

Glover: SO THE UNIVERSITY FACILITY HAS DESTROYED ALL --

Geoffroy: THEY'RE ALL GONE.

Glover: HOW DID YOU HANDLE THAT WHEN THAT POPPED UP? WAS THAT A PROBLEM FOR YOU?

Geoffroy: WELL, IT WAS BECAUSE IT CAME OUT OF THE BLUE. AND OF COURSE, THE AMES STRAIN WAS NOT "DEVELOPED" AT IOWA STATE. IT WAS A NATURAL STRAIN THAT WAS IDENTIFIED AT IOWA STATE. AND OF COURSE, THE ORIGINAL REPORTS WERE SOMETHING TO THE EFFECT THAT THERE WAS SUPPOSEDLY CREDIBLE EVIDENCE THAT THE ANTHRAX CAME FROM AMES AND --

Glover: I THINK IT ALL BUT HAD YOU PUTTING THE ANTHRAX IN THE ENVELOPES. [ LAUGHTER ]

Geoffroy: SO THERE WAS A LOT OF SCURRYING AROUND, ADDRESSING THE MEDIA, GETTING THE CORRECT STORY OUT THERE, AND IT DISAPPEARED PRETTY QUICKLY.

Yepsen: I WANT TO GO BACK TO THIS HOG-LOT QUESTION. IT REALLY IS RIPPING UP THIS STATE. AND MIKE IS RIGHT: THERE IS CRITICISM UP THERE AT THE HILL THAT IOWA STATE JUST HASN'T DONE ENOUGH. NOW, YOU'VE OUTLINED SOME THINGS THAT YOU HAVE DONE. WHO MORE CAN YOU DO? REGARDLESS OF WHAT YOU'VE DONE UP TO THIS POINT, DR. GEOFFROY, THIS IS STILL A HUGE SOCIAL PROBLEM IN THIS STATE.

Geoffroy: IT IS A HUGE SOCIAL PROBLEM; THERE'S NO QUESTION ABOUT IT. AND IT'S ADDRESSED BY, FIRST OF ALL --

Yepsen: DO YOU NEED MORE MONEY? DO YOU NEED MORE PEOPLE? WHAT DO YOU NEED TO TELL THE PEOPLE OF IOWA, "WE CAN FIX THIS THING AT THIS LAND-GRANT UNIVERSITY"?

Geoffroy: THIS IS AN AREA, OF COURSE, THAT I'M NOT A PERSONAL EXPERT IN, BUT I'D BE SURPRISED IF THIS IS A PROBLEM THAT CAN BE TRULY FIXED. I THINK IT'S A PROBLEM THAT WE CAN PROVIDE AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT THE BEST PRACTICES ARE TO MINIMIZE HOG-LOT ODORS, BUT TO SAY THAT WE'LL BE ABLE TO DEVELOP A WAY TO COMPLETELY OBLITERATE HOG ODORS, I THINK, IS NOT A LIKELY POSSIBILITY. WE ARE WORKING ON THIS PROBLEM.

Yepsen: I WANT TO GO BACK TO THE BUDGET CUT ISSUE FOR JUST A SECOND. YOU MENTIONED AT THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, YOU WERE MAKING CHANGES THERE. ARE THERE OTHER SPECIFIC EXAMPLES OF PLACES WHERE YOU'RE MAKING ADJUSTMENTS OR CUTS THAT YOU CAN TALK ABOUT WITH US TODAY?

Geoffroy: IT'S TOO EARLY. AND IT'S NOT BECAUSE I'M NOT COMFORTABLE TALKING ABOUT THEM; IT'S BECAUSE WE DON'T HAVE THEM ALL SPECIFIED VERY WELL. WE'RE GOING THROUGH A PROCESS IN WHICH ALL OF THE UNITS HAVE BEEN ASKED TO BRING FORWARD BUDGET REDUCTION PLANS, RESTRUCTURING PLANS. THOSE ARE NOT DUE TILL THE END OF JANUARY. AND SO IT'S THEN THAT WE'LL BE ABLE TO START SERIOUSLY EVALUATING THOSE OPTIONS.

Henderson: AS YOU EVALUATE THE UNIVERSITY, I ASSUME YOU'VE COME UP WITH YOUR NUMBER ONE GOAL. WHAT IS THAT?

Geoffroy: MY TOP GOAL IS TO INCREASE THE EXCELLENCE OF THE UNIVERSITY. THE LONG-TERM GOAL IS TO MAKE IOWA STATE THE BEST LAND-GRANT UNIVERSITY IN THE NATION.

Henderson: BOY, THAT SOUNDS GREAT. HOW DO YOU DO IT?

Geoffroy: WELL, YOU DO IT PRINCIPALLY BY RECRUITING, RETAINING WORLD-CLASS FACULTY MEMBERS, AND BUILDING EXCELLENCE SELECTIVELY IN FOCUSED AREAS. TAKE THE PLANT SCIENCES. THE PLANT SCIENCES, OUR OBJECTIVE IS TO BE TRULY THE BEST IN THE WORLD IN TEACHING, LEARNING, RESEARCH IN THE PLANT SCIENCES, BECAUSE IT'S SO IMPORTANT FOR IOWA. WE PROBABLY ALREADY ARE AT THAT LEVEL, BUT WE WANT TO KEEP WORKING TO INCREASE WHAT WE'RE DOING, AND PARTICULARLY TO WORK ON PROBLEMS THAT ARE IMPORTANT TO THE ECONOMY OF IOWA.

Glover: TO BRING THE BUDGET BACK INTO ALL THIS, IS THIS BUDGET PRESSURE THREATENING THE UNIVERSITY STATUS? CAN YOU COME BACK TO THE HILL IN TWO YEARS AND SAY, "WE'RE NOT THE BEST IN THE WORLD BECAUSE YOU DIDN'T GIVE US THE MONEY?"

Geoffroy: WELL, IT'S THREATENING. IT CERTAINLY IS THREATENING. FACULTY SALARIES IS AN EXAMPLE. IT'S DIFFICULT FOR US TO ADDRESS THE FACT THAT WE'RE NEAR THE BOTTOM OF OUR PEER GROUP IN FACULTY SALARIES AND TO TRY AND PROVE THAT WHEN WE'RE IN THESE KINDS OF BUDGET SITUATIONS. WHAT'S IMPORTANT FOR US IS TO BE VERY STRATEGIC AND VERY FOCUSED IN WHAT WE DO AND WHERE WE PUT OUR INVESTMENTS, KEEP INVESTING IN OUR HIGH PRIORITY ACTIVITIES AND WHAT WE VALUE AS MOST IMPORTANT. IF WE KEEP DOING THAT, WE WILL MOVE AHEAD.

Glover: TO REPHRASE KAY'S QUESTION AND MAYBE PUT IT IN A LITTLE DIFFERENT WAY, AFTER YOUR TENURE HERE AT IOWA STATE, HOWEVER LONG THAT MIGHT BE -- AND I MIGHT ASK YOU HOW LONG YOU MIGHT INTEND TO BE THERE -- WHAT DO YOU WANT TO BE REMEMBERED FOR? WHEN PEOPLE TALK ABOUT THE GEOFFROY REIGN AT IOWA STATE, WHAT DO YOU WANT THEM TO SAY?

Geoffroy: I HOPE TO HAVE A GOOD LONG TENURE AT IOWA STATE. WITHOUT QUESTION, THE MOST IMPORTANT OUTCOME WOULD BE AN INCREASE IN THE LEVEL OF EXCELLENCE OF IOWA STATE, THAT PEOPLE AROUND THE COUNTRY RECOGNIZE THAT IOWA STATE IS A STRONGER UNIVERSITY, MORE INFLUENTIAL UNIVERSITY OF HIGH IMPACT AFTER I'VE LEFT THAN BEFORE I CAME.

Yepsen: DR. GEOFFROY, WE'RE ABOUT OUT OF TIME, BUT I HAVE TO ASK YOU THIS AS A UNIVERSITY OF IOWA GRADUATE. ARE WE GOING TO PLAY NEXT YEAR'S GAME AT THE START OF THE SEASON OR AT THE END OF THE SEASON?

Geoffroy: I WOULD MUCH PREFER IT AT THE END OF THE SEASON, AND WE'VE BEEN PUSHING FOR THAT.

Yepsen: SO WE GET ANOTHER SHOT AT YOU THEN?

Geoffroy: YES.

Yepsen: WELL, LISTEN, THANK YOU FOR BEING WITH US.

Geoffroy: THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

Yepsen: NOW, AS YOU MIGHT KNOW, "IOWA PRESS" HAS A NEW BROADCAST SCHEDULE WITH THE START OF A NEW SEASON. "IOWA PRESS" NOW AIRS ON FRIDAYS AT 6:30 P.M. AND ON SUNDAY AT NOON. AND IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION IS CELEBRATING THE 30TH SEASON ON THE AIR FOR "IOWA PRESS," AND WE CLOSE WITH A SNAPSHOT OF OUR "IOWA PRESS" PAST. FARM BROADCASTER JIM ROSS LIGHTFOOT SOUGHT POLITICAL OFFICE FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE CAMPAIGN OF 1984. IN OCTOBER OF THAT YEAR, LIGHTFOOT SAID FARMERS, AND AGRICULTURE AS A WHOLE, WERE CORNERED BY INFLATION, BY SKY-HIGH INTEREST RATES, AND THAT HE WOULD FOCUS HIS EFFORTS AND HIS POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY ON CORRECTING THE SITUATION. I'M DAVID YEPSEN SITTING IN FOR DEAN BORG. THANKS FOR JOINING US HERE ON STATEWIDE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION.

Lightfoot: AS TOM MENTIONED, YOU KNOW, BLAME THE INTEREST RATE ON ANY ONE INDIVIDUAL. I'M BLAMING THE INTEREST RATE BASICALLY ON THE POLICIES OF THE PAST, WHICH WE'RE TRYING TO CORRECT. AND AT THIS POINT IN TIME, HIGH INTEREST RATES ARE THE RESULT OF GETTING THE INFLATION DOWN AND THE EXCESSIVE GOVERNMENT SPENDING. IT DEPENDS WHETHER YOU'RE GOING TO VOTE PHILOSOPHY, WHETHER YOU WANT TO LOOK TO THE FUTURE, IF YOU WANT TO GO BACK TO THE OLD PROGRAMS THAT WE'VE HAD. JUST WHEN LAST WEEK SECRETARY BERGLAND, WHO IS A DEMOCRAT, SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE BERGLAND, MR. BUTTS, MR. HARDIN, THE THREE OF THEM BASICALLY AGREED THAT THE FARM POLICIES OF THE PAST HAVE HAD A GREAT DEAL TO DO WITH LEADING US INTO THE SITUATION THAT WE HAVE TODAY. AND THOSE GENTLEMEN ARE USING THE LUXURY OF 20/20 HINDSIGHT. SO I THINK WE COULD LEARN A LOT FROM WHAT THEY HAVE TO SAY. I THINK WE HAVE SOME VERY, VERY SERIOUS PROBLEMS IN AGRICULTURE. WE HAVE A LOT OF FARMERS WHO HAVE GONE OUT OF BUSINESS. WE HAVE A LOT OF FARMERS THAT ARE JUST ON THE BRINK OF GOING OUT OF BUSINESS. AND IF WE DON'T GET INTO A POSITIVE STRUCTURE, WE'RE GOING TO SEE MORE FARMERS GO DOWN. AND WITH IT, YES, WE DO HAVE A VERY SERIOUS PROBLEM IN AGRICULTURE.

Narrator: FUNDING FOR "IOWA PRESS" WAS PROVIDED BY: FRIENDS OF IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION; AND BY THE IOWA BANKERS ASSOCIATION... FOR PERSONAL, BUSINESS, AND COMMERCIAL NEEDS, IOWA BANKS HELP IOWANS REACH THEIR FINANCIAL GOALS.