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Strategy Toolbox: Combinations
Question / Answer
There are several strategies relating to questioning. After all, asking good questions is the foundation of comprehension. The following sites provide some background on questioning:
Open-Ended Questions
Questioning Strategies

QAR – Question – Answer – Relationship (Raphael, 1984, 1986)
This strategy helps students develop independent questioning techniques. Students are encouraged to find three types of questions in their reading material. Two are text explicit: right there (question and answer can be found in the same sentence) and think and search (question and answer are in the text but not in the same sentence). The third type of question is on my own, which is experience-based. The answer is not in the text, but in the experience the reader brings to the text. The following web-site may be helpful with this strategy:
QAR

QAD – Question - Answer - Detail
To use this strategy, students create a three column sheet. Teachers can provide the questions for the first column, especially when first using this strategy. Students find the answers and write them in the middle column. The third column is for details supporting the answer. This guides students to read for more complete information. Other variations of this technique are: QAE (question - answer - example) and QAP (question - answer - picture). The main point is that the teacher determine the purpose of the reading and then direct students’ questioning to meet those needs.

SQ3R
SQ3R is a strategy that can be used to help students get involved with text. It stands fro Survey, Question, Read, Recite and Review.
In general:
Survey = Before reading, look over the material to be read. Think about what you already know about the subject. Look for areas of importance.
Question = Either use questions from the text (e.g., at the end of the chapter) or turn headings into questions. Questioning will make the reading more interesting and helps create purpose for the reading.
Three R's:
Read actively = Read to answer the questions
Recite = Put it into your own words, take notes.
Review = Study the notes.
Web site: SQ3R


These handouts will help you share the strategy with your students:
-- SQ3R: A Reading/Study Strategy (Word document)
-- Apply SQ3R (Word document)
-- SQ3R: A Reading Strategy that Works! (Word document)

-- SQ3R A Reading Comprehension Strategy
(Word document)
-- SQ3R (PowerPoint presentation)

Graphic Organizers
Ask someone what their favorite food is, and then ask them how they thought of it. Did they see the food or a word spelling the food? Most people see the food! Our minds work visually. We take in the shape of a stop sign and understand it no matter what word is written on the sign. Graphic organizers take advantage of this tendency of our minds to take in information visually. In general, they organize written information in a graphical way. There are many different types of organizers. They can be used in a variety of ways. The following web sites offer more explanations and examples of graphic organizers:

Basic Graphic Organizers

Guidelines for Creating Graphic Organizers

Index of Graphic Organizers

Library of Organizers

References for Graphic Organizers

Sample Graphic Organizers

Sample Graphic Organizers 2

Charts


RAFT

RAFT stands for :

Role - of the writer (e.g., eyewitness, victim, reporter)
Audience - who will be reading this writing?
Format - will this be a letter? An article? Poem?
Topic - what is the subject?

Using this strategy, students write a response to the text using a different point of view . This strategy encourages creative thinking and reading on higher levels of understanding. Students read a selection and then write a response from a unique role. For example, reading a Supreme Court decision from several points of view and then responding through an article or a letter or even a song would require some creative thinking on the part of your students. This web site will give more information:
RAFT

Things We Know
This strategy involves students in groups. They divide a sheet of paper into three columns: Things we know; things we THINK we know and things we don't know. The teacher gives them the topic to be studied. Then the students go to work filling in the columns. Once they are finished, the teacher may want to collate their work on the board. This gives direction and purpose to the assigned reading. Students may even read beyond the text to find information!


KWL
KWL stands for - "What I KNOW; What I WANT to learn; What I LEARNED".

Students create a three column sheet. The first column is "K," What I Know. Students write, before reading, what they already know about the topic in this column. In the middle column students list what they want ot know about the topic. Sometimes teachers can add to this list by supplying some questions or areas of importance that students should want to learn about. The final column is completed while students are reading or after they have read the topic. It's important to correct any misconceptions identified in the "Know" column with their new learning.It can then become a study guide for students. The following handout may help you get started:

KWL (Word document)

Question / Answer | SQ3R | Graphic Organizers | Charts

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