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Liberty's Kids

Yorktown (#136)

Timeline: August - October, 1781 Moses' brother Cato, fighting for his own freedom, serves as a soldierfor the British and is sent into harm's way by Cornwallis' inhumanly racist orders. Aided by a sympathetic Hessian soldier, Cato escapes with his life. Moses joins the American mining corps, which is a group of men who dig tunnels and build walls needed in battle, and tries unsuccessfully to find Cato. Sarah, James and Henri witness the siege and victory at Yorktown. Historical Content: The climatic battle of the war is fought at Yorktown. After a long siege, Cornwallis surrenders his sword and it's a huge victory for the Americans, but Washington is not yet convinced the war is over (October 19, 1781). [28 minutes] Closed Captioning

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  • The Boston Tea Party - (Pilot, Part I) (#101)

    Timeline: December 5-16, 1773 At the direction of Benjamin Franklin, Moses, James and Henri travel to Boston in search of Sarah, who has arrived from England on a tea-laden ship. When they get to the Harbor, they happen upon the disguised colonists and discover they are raiding the very ship Sarah is on. Historical Content: Colonists in Boston rebel against England's " taxation without representation" - which means imposing taxes on the colonies, without giving them a voice in Parliament - by throwing a fortune in tea into Boston's Harbor, while disguised as Mohawk Indians. There are no fatalities or serious injuries but the colonist's tea party strikes a mighty blow that reaches all the way to England. Timeline: December 16, 1773. [26 minutes]

  • The Intolerable Acts - (Pilot, Part II) (#102)

    Moses, James, Sarah and Henri hide at poet Phillis Wheatley's house in Boston, where some of His Majesty's soldiers are being quartered. Hearing Phillis Wheatley's story, Sarah is confronted with the horror of slavery for the first time. Later, though Sarah does not agree with her new friends' thoughts about Mother England, she helps them in a time of trouble. Historical Content: In response to the Boston Tea Party, the British Parliament passes the "Intolerable Acts," including "quartering," which allows British soldiers to take over a colonist's home without their permission. Boston becomes an occupied city (March - June 1774) . Meanwhile, in England, Benjamin Franklin faces charges of treason and gives one of his greatest speeches ever, refuting the charges and declaring himself an American. Timeline: January 1774. [26 minutes]

  • United We Stand (#103)

    Timeline: September 5, 1774 Moses lets James report on Congress and after a British sailor is " tarred and feathered," James learns about the ugliness of mob rule, when emotions get in the way of compassion. Sarah and Henri meet Abigail Adams and travel with her to bring supplies and pamphlets to the occupied city of Boston. Sarah immediately finds in Abigail a strong female role model to look up to. Historical Content: At the First Continental Congress, representatives of each colony meet as a group for the first time. Cousins Sam and John Adams argue that the Intolerable Acts are not just a New England problem, they are an "American problem" and they therefore urge Congress to take notice. The British shut down Boston Harbor to all trade and this further infuriates the colonists. [28 minutes]

  • Liberty Or Death! (#104)

    Timeline: March, 1775 James, Sarah, Henri and Moses travel to Virginia, where they witness Patrick Henry's speech. Moses is shocked to find his brother Cato on the slave auction block and risks his own freedom to rescue him. Cato sees hope for himself in Dunmore's Proclamation and in the end leaves his brother to seek his own path to freedom. Historical Content: Patrick Henry, the greatest speaker of his day, stirs the South to the cause of freedom with his famous "Give me Liberty or give me death!" speech (March 23, 1775). Lord Dunmore's Proclamation offers liberty to any slave who will fight for the British (November 14, 1775) and full scale war comes a step closer as another colony agrees to fight. [28 minutes]

  • The Midnight Ride (#105)

    Timeline: April 18, 1775 Sarah and James travel to Boston to deliver a message to Patriot leader Dr. Joseph Warren and end up riding with the famous messengers so that they can write about it for the paper. Historical Content: Without being able to reach an understanding, theBritish press in on the Colonists. Paul Revere and William Dawes spread the word that the "British are coming!" on the eve of "the shot heard 'round the world." There is no turning back now, for the war is about to begin. [26 minutes]

  • The Shot Heard 'round The World (#106)

    Timeline: April 19, 1775 James, reporting on the Minutemen, and Sarah, falling in with the British forces, report from both sides of the "shot heard 'round the world" at Concord Bridge. They each leave the scene fearful of what the future will bring though James is caught up with the romanticism of fighting for liberty. Historical Content: The Revolutionary War begins with the battles of Lexington and Concord. Minutemen -- citizens taking up arms -- fight the powerful, experienced Red Coats. They are outnumbered and outgunned but refuse to back down until shots are fired. [28 minutes]

  • Green Mountain Boys (#107)

    Timeline: May 10, 1775 James heads to the Grants to cover the story of the settlers' struggle Sarah goes hoping to find a place in the Green Mountains for her family to settle, and Henri wants to find maple syrup. Sarah and James witness the capture of the fort and Sarah befriends Benedict Arnold, whom she instantly respects. Historical Content: Trouble erupts in the New Hampshire Grants when settlers are forced from their homes (1770-1775). Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold reluctantly join forces to capture Fort Ticonderoga in New York -- thereby expanding the war beyond New England (May 10, 1775). We also meet Benedict Arnold for the first time and see that he is in fact a brilliant soldier who is treated poorly by the local militia he has been sent to lead. [28 minutes]

  • The Second Continental Congress (#108)

    Timeline: May 5, 1775 Desperate for information on what Congress is doing behind the closed doors of the statehouse, James unknowingly befriends a British spy. Sarah and Moses meet George Washington and together use "Yankee ingenuity" to fix Washington's carriage after it breaks. Historical Content: The colonies decide they need a national army. John Adams nominates George Washington - over other candidates who include the President of Congress, John Hancock - to lead the new force. Politics rears its ugly head as debates abound over who should lead this army, but in the end George Washington is chosen. [28 minutes]

  • Bunker Hill (#109)

    Timeline: June 17, 1775 Sarah searches for a British officer who may know her father's whereabouts. James, with Dr. Joseph Warren at Bunker Hill, witnesses the battle and learns firsthand the high price of freedom. Henri makes mischief as a messenger between the battle lines. They are all saddened when they are faced with death. Historical Content: The first major battle of the war is fought. The Americans, with precious little ammunition, can't afford to waste a single shot so they are told, " don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes." The battle results in a victory for the Crown, but at such a high cost to the British that the American cause gains needed momentum. [28 minutes]

  • Postmaster General Franklin (#110)

    Timeline: May 26 - July 26, 1775 When Patriot mail falls into the hands of the British, James and Sarahagree to carry important letters safely to New York. On the way they evade British troops and get help from the New Jersey Committee of Correspondence. They learn of how deep the resistance movement is and that it is even involved in making sure communication within the colonies continues. Historical Content: Benjamin Franklin is named the first Postmaster General of the colonies (July 26, 1775) and we learn the importance of communication and how long it took for letters and news to spread through the colonies and across the ocean. Franklin's brilliance is evident as he creates an American Postal Service, and his methods of moving the mail increases communication to the colonists. [28 minutes]

  • Washington Takes Command (#111)

    Timeline: July 3, 1775 - March 4, 1776 Sarah, James and Henri travel to Massachusetts with Washington and seehim pull together the diverse group of men into a Continental Army. James accompanies Henry Knox to Fort Ticonderoga to bring back the cannons, which finally help to drive the British from Boston. James and Sarah proudly watch the raising of the new Grand Union flag. Historical Content: George Washington arrives in Boston to take command of the army (July 3, 1775). He has no idea if the New Englanders will follow a Virginian, but he is a born leader and quickly takes charge of the defense of Boston. After a year-long siege, the British withdraw to New York (March 4, 1776). [28 minutes]

  • Common Sense (#112)

    Timeline: January 10, 1776 James, Sarah and Henri meet Thomas Paine and learn of his belief that the common man can rule himself. The Kids also hear Paine's stand favoring full independence from England. James is particularly impressed and realizes that his work on the paper is as important as that of soldiers firing guns. Historical Content: Thomas Paine publishes his famous pamphlet called"Common Sense." It is an instant best seller, read by everyone from General George Washington to the lowest private in the army. This has a profound effect on the mood of the colonists and helps push the colonies further along the road toward freedom. [28 minutes]

  • The First Fourth of July (#113)

    Timeline: June 6 - July 4, 1776 James and Sarah witness the amazing process of the writing of the Declaration of Independence and meet Thomas Jefferson while competing to get the best story. Historical Content: As German troops, called Hessians, arrive off thecoast of Staten Island (July 4, 1776) to help the British, John Adams finally convinces Congress that independence is the only answer to the colonies' problems. They ask Thomas Jefferson to write the first draft of a "Declaration of Independence." Shortly after the Declaration is signed on July 4th, a massive British fleet enters New York harbor. Benjamin Franklin realizes that on their side, unity is essential and he says, "we must hang together or we will surely hang separately." [26 minutes]

  • New York, New York (#114)

    Timeline: July 9 - September 15, 1776 In New York City, Sarah stays with her mother's friend Mrs. Radcliffe and reports on the loyalist point of view of those who believe revolution is foolish. James escapes across the East River to Manhattan Island with the Continental Army under cover of night as he goes on an incredible adventure. Historical Content: Things take a turn for the worse for America at the Battle of Long Island, Washington fights the British in open field battles -- with catastrophic results (August 27-29, 1776). With his troops in disarray and his spirit nearly broken, the Commander vows to avoid open field battles and to instead borrow war tactics from the Indians. After the battle of Kip's Bay, the British take New York City (September 15, 1776) and the American forces look like they are in danger of losing the entire war. [28 minutes]

  • The Turtle (#115)

    Timeline: September 4-7, 1776 The Kids, thinking they're reporting on the sighting of a "sea monster in New York harbor, instead meet David Bushnell, the father of the submarine. James and Sarah talk their way into the mission and become part of the nighttime attack that goes awry. Historical Content: An inventor has come up with a submersible ship that the colonists are going to use against the British fleet. Though the first attempt to sink a ship with a submarine fails ( September 6, 1776), the blockade of New York is weakened by the attempt and the British witness another example of Yankee ingenuity. ~ [28 minutes]

  • One Life to Lose (#116)

    Timeline: September 9 - 22, 1776 James and Sarah meet Nathan Hale and witness this man's deep conviction and commitment to the American fight for freedom, which inspires them both. They are determined to make sure everyone hears his final words. Historical Content: A failed peace conference between the British Admiral Howe and John Adams and Benjamin Franklin convinces the American leaders that the British have no interest in making peace ( September 11, 1776). While the meetings are ongoing, a new spy is sent out to get inside information for the colonists. However, the spy, Nathan Hale is caught and hanged (September 22, 1776) prior to which he utters his famous words "I regret that I have but one life to give to my country." [28 minutes]

  • Captain Molly (#117)

    Timeline: October 24 - November 12, 1776 Sarah travels to Fort Tryon and meets the courageous "Captain Molly," who takes up her husband's cannon when he falls. James sees his confidence in George Washington shaken, then hears the General vow determinedly to never again make a decision that goes against his own instincts. Henri reluctantly agrees to let Moses give him reading lessons. Historical Content: Benjamin Franklin is appointed to a commission tonegotiate a treaty with the French. He sails for France aboard the Reprisal (October 24, 1776). Just after he leaves, Fort Washington surrenders, which is a catastrophe for the American cause (November 12, 1776), as General Washington fails again to win a battle. We meet the courageous Captain Molly, and learn how she fearlessly assisted in her new country's fight for freedom. [28 minutes]

  • American Crisis (#118)

    Timeline: December 12-19, 1776 The Kids are reunited with Thomas Paine and are witnesses as Paine writes, "These are the times that try men's souls." They see first hand the incredible pressure that General Washington is under and wonder if the revolution is about to end with the British emerging victorious. Historical Content: This is the low point of the war for the Americans. Washington's adjutant, General Joseph Reed, questions the Commander's ability to lead. Another General, Lee, ignores Washington's orders and is eventually captured by the British ( December 13, 1776). The Continental Congress, anticipating attack, flees Philadelphia for Baltimore (December 12, 1776). Washington knows he must win a battle or the revolution will fail from lack of public support. Meanwhile, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, Franklin's thoughts and hopes are with the Americans. [28 minutes]

  • Across The Delaware (#119)

    Timeline: December 22, 1776 - January 2, 1777 James and Sarah are concerned when a British spy named John Honeyman is captured. James discovers that all is not what it seems as Honeyman is really spying for Washington. However, he cannot tell anyone, including Sarah, in fear of the secret getting out. Historical Content: Washington finally gets a victory when he re-crosses the Delaware River on Christmas Day, in a surprise move the British commander does not suspect. His troops defeat the sleeping Hessians at Trenton (December 26, 1776) and then Washington lights campfires to make it look like his men are bunking down for the night. Instead they march to Princeton and another victory (January 2, 1777). The country celebrates, and morale is restored amongst the soldiers. [28 minutes]

  • An American In Paris (#120)

    Timeline: January - March, 1777 While visiting Abigail Adams in Boston, Sarah finds herself in the middle of a smallpox epidemic. Abigail wants to inoculate her children but they are afraid. In an attempt to ease their concerns, Sarah gets inoculated herself. Sarah has a bad reaction and contracts a serious case of the disease. However, with Abigail's assistance she recovers quickly. James accompanies Alexander Hamilton to the army camp at Morristown, where Hamilton joins Washington's staff as a highly valued new officer. Historical Content: Benjamin Franklin arrives in France and sets up residence in Paris. He discovers that he is a celebrity there as he begins his uphill battle to enlist France in the American cause ( December 28, 1776). Franklin's hopes are bolstered when news of the victories at Trenton and Princeton reach France (March, 1777). In America, civilians and soldiers alike fight the scourge of smallpox ( January, 1777) with a new procedure called an inoculation. [26 minutes]

  • Sybil Ludington (#121)

    Timeline: April - July, 1777 James learns that all kinds of people can be heroes and that especially includes strong-minded courageous young ladies. Meanwhile Sarah sees Benedict Arnold battle for respect with the same passion he uses to battle the British. She becomes concerned that Arnold's passions might do what the British cannot - defeat him. Historical Content: Sixteen-year-old Sybil Ludington defies the standard view of what is proper for a young lady and makes her own courageous "midnight ride" in Westchester County, New York to help the rebels cause (April 26, 1777). Benedict Arnold fights for " respect" from Congress and grows more and more frustrated over the way he is being treated by the colonial leaders. [28 minutes]

  • Lafayette Arrives (#122)

    Timeline: July 27 - September 11, 1777 Henri meets Lafayette, who he quickly discovers, has no children. Forthe French born Henri, this is all he needs to hear as he instantly sees himself as Lafayette's surrogate son. James and Sarah follow the Marquis from Congress to the field at Brandywine where they quickly learn of the strength and commitment from this man from another country. Historical Content: So believing in the American cause, the 19-year-old Marquis de Lafayette disobeys his King to leave France to offer his services to Congress (July 27, 1777). After at first being turned down by Congress he is sent to George Washington, who virtually adopts him as his son. Lafayette distinguishes himself at the Battle of Brandywine Creek (September 11, 1777). News of his great courage helps the American cause in France where Benjamin Franklin continues to lobby for support from the French government. [28 minutes]

  • The Hessians Are Coming (#123)

    Timeline: August - October 17, 1777 James witnesses the victory at Saratoga while lashed to a Hessian soldier. He is forced to understand that even though someone stands across the battlefield from another person, they are not that different beneath the uniform. Sarah is present for Benedict Arnold' s heroics and sees the change taking place in him. Historical Content: The American General Horatio Gates defeats Burgoyne at the Battle of Saratoga (October 17, 1777). Benedict Arnold is the true hero of the battle but is angered when he fails to receive proper recognition. His righteous indignation leads Sarah to feel that his loyalty to the American cause is at risk. [28 minutes]

  • Valley Forge (#124)

    Timeline: February, 1778 James and Sarah meet normal foot soldiers that show them the hardshipsthat must be endured in a war. They are amazed by George Washington's strength as a leader, even in the face of betrayal. Historical Content: George Washington and his Continental Army endurea horrible winter at Valley Forge. Baron von Stueben writes a training program for the army and helps Washington's troops become a professional fighting unit. Lafayette proves his loyalty to Washington as The Conway Cabal, a plot to oust George Washington as commander of the army, fails. [28 minutes]

  • Allies at Last (#125)

    Timeline: December 4, 1777 - May 4, 1778 James learns about religious freedom from Moses Michael Hayes, while Sarah and Henri spend time with British troops in occupied Philadelphia. Historical Content: News of the American victory at Saratoga helps pave the way for Benjamin Franklin to negotiate a treaty with France. America and France are allies at last. The treaty obligates the French to help fight the Revolutionary War (February 6, 1778). Finally, Franklin feels that America has a real chance to win the war. [28 minutes]

  • Honor and Compromise (#126)

    Timeline: May 9 - June 28, 1778 Henri befriends Wappinger Indian Abraham Nimham, who tutors the boy onthe finer points of capturing turkeys for their feathers. Sarah and Moses visit Congress in York, Pennsylvania, and witness the debate over the Articles of Confederation. Historical Content: The states struggle to unite politically before the arrival of the French Ambassador (May 9 - July 8, 1778). Charles Henry Lee nearly costs the Americans dearly at the Battle of Monmouth when, in direct violation of his orders, he orders a retreat (June 28, 1778). George Washington arrives just in time to rally Lee's troops to victory. [28 minutes]

  • The New Frontier (#127)

    Timeline: 1779 Sarah is reunited with her father in Ohio. After witnessing the crueltreatment of Cornstalk, she has had enough of the violence in the New World and decides to return to England. James takes on an angry mob as he reports on the repercussions of inflation. Historical Content: In the Ohio territory, Shawnee Chief Cornstalk and his people are caught between the Americans and the British, with tragic results (November, 1777). In Philadelphia, inflation makes life difficult for working people and leads to the "Fort Wilson" riot (October 1779). [28 minutes]

  • Not Yet Begun to Fight (#128)

    Timeline: September 23, 1779 Sailing to England, Sarah is shipwrecked and saved by Jones. Later, she comes to the realization that she is now, in her heart, an American. Historical Content: In a long, desperate battle, John Paul Jones and his wildly outgunned Bonhomme Richard defeat the British Serapis off the coast of England (September 23, 1779). [28 minutes]

  • The Great Galvez (#129)

    Timeline: November, 1779 - March 13, 1780 James and Henri sail down the Mississippi, seeking Galvez. In England Sarah witnesses British opposition to the war and tells her mother she intends to return to Philadelphia. Historical Content: Spanish Governor Bernardo de Galvez aides the American cause by capturing Baton Rouge (September 21, 1779), Natchez (October 5, 1779) and Mobile (March 13, 1780) from the British. [28 minutes]

  • In Praise of Ben (#130)

    Sarah returns to Philadelphia and is reunited with Moses, James and Henri. Henri gets into a scrape with a Tory boy when the Tory makes disparaging comments about Ben Franklin. Sarah, James and Moses tell the boys about Franklin's discoveries, inventions, writings and other accomplishments that have made him one of the world's greatest men. ~~Historical Content: A historical retrospective of Benjamin's life and numerous inventions. [28 minutes]

  • Bostonians (#131)

    Timeline: March 8 - September, 1779 James travels to New York and views the terrible acts committed by theIroquois and the colonists alike. Sarah is reunited with Abigail Adams and draws even closer to this wonderful, strong colonial leader (August 27, 1779). Historical Content: John Adams and his son John Quincy return from France where they had been for a few years while John Adams worked on behalf of the colonies. Abigail Adams is happily reunited with her husband and son (August 2, 1779). On the heels of his return, John Adams is asked to write the Massachusetts Constitution (August 9, 1779), which is a defining document of the emerging thought on rights. Later, John Adams agrees to return to France to continue working towards the diplomatic cause of a new American nation. He and Abigail once again agree to make a great personal sacrifice towards the cause of freedom. In New York, Joseph Brant, a chief of the Iroquois Confederacy, is leading his people in a losing battle to coexist with the colonists. [28 minutes]

  • Benedict Arnold (#132)

    Timeline: September - October 1780 Sarah, particularly, is upset by her former friend's act of treason and feels it as a great personal blow, especially after her own journey to England during which she proclaimed herself a proud and loyal American. James is there to help her through the ordeal and to cover this infamous saga. Historical Content: Benedict Arnold's loyalty to America turns as he tries to hand the camp at West Point over to the British (September 21, 1780) in the greatest act of treason in America's history. However, Arnold's plot is uncovered when his accomplice Major Andre is captured (September 23, 1780). George Washington is outraged by the treason. [28 minutes]

  • Conflict in the South (#133)

    Timeline: October 16, 1780 - March 1781 James and Henri follow the ups and downs of General Nathaniel Greene'sefforts finding it exhausting for all but the most stalwart of people. Sarah is outraged when she discovers the great Thomas Jefferson keeps slaves. They discuss the issue with Sarah, as always, defending the rights of those who are being persecuted by others. Historical Content: General Nathaniel Greene replaces Horatio Gates as the American commander in the south (October 16, 1780). Trying to win the hearts and minds of the Southern populace, Greene leads Cornwallis on a six-month chase that exhausts the British troops and leads Cornwallis to move into Virginia (December, 1780 - March, 1781). At the same time, Virginia Governor Thomas Jefferson is forced by traitor Benedict Arnold to abandon the Governor's residence in Richmond. [28 minutes]

  • Deborah Samson - Soldier of the Revolution (#134)

    Timeline: January - May, 1781 Sarah meets the courageous Deborah Samson and learns another lesson about the tremendous efforts of women in the American Revolution. James and Henri, accompanying Washington, meet Rochambeau and are party to the arguments between the two powerful Generals as they get the story for the Gazette. Historical Content: Deborah Samson, a young woman and former teacher, masquerades as a man so she can enlist in the Continental Army (May 20, 1782 - October 23, 1783). Her true identity is discovered while getting treatment for an injury. She is befriended by men who believe her to be a true hero. Washington and the French General Rochambeau disagree on whether to try to retake New York or move south against Cornwallis (January - May 1781). [28 minutes]

  • James Armistead (#135)

    Timeline: March - August 1781 Sarah and Henri go from camp to camp with Lafayette as he jousts with Cornwallis, then worry over the fate of James Armistead. James follows the maneuvering of Washington and Henry Knox. Moses learns from Sarah that his brother Cato is fighting with Cornwallis's forces. Historical Content: Virginia slave James Armistead joins the side of the American colonists by offering his services to Lafayette as a spy on Benedict Arnold (March, 1781). Later, working as a double agent, Armistead provides false information to British General Cornwallis ( July, 1781). With news that de Grasse's French fleet is headed for Chesapeake Bay, Washington abandons plans to attack New York (August 14, 1781). His Excellency resolves to move his troops to Virginia to join with the French fleet and trap Cornwallis in Yorktown. [28 minutes]

  • Born Free and Equal (#137)

    Timeline: 1781 - 1783 Sarah, staying with Abigail Adams in Boston, is thrilled to see Mum Bett freed and resolves to fight for civil rights. In France, Ben Franklin hopes that news of Yorktown will convince King George to surrender to his former colonies. James finds himself in a tight spot as he digs deeper for the whole story. Historical Content: The Massachusetts slave "Mum Bett" sues for her freedom (May 28, 1781). When she wins, she renames herself Elizabeth Freeman (August 1781). With this decision and the case of another slave, Quok Walker, Massachusetts abolishes slavery (1783). In Great Britain, a bitter, recalcitrant King George III is finally convinced to recognize American independence and to go to the peace table. [28 minutes]

  • The Man Who Would Not Be King (#138)

    Timeline: December 1, 1782 - December 23, 1783 James tells Sarah and Henri the story of the attempted military coup and the three Kids journey to Maryland to see Washington offer his resignation to Congress. Historical Content: Benjamin Franklin and John Adams sign the peace treaty with England, ending the Revolutionary War (November 30, 1783). At Newburgh, New York, some members of Washington's officer corps want him to become King and take over the country. Washington puts down the revolt - not with force, but with the use of his eyeglasses (March 15, 1783). The soldiers had never before seen any sign of physical weakness, this revelation has great effect. Washington then races to Congress and resigns to become, once again, a farmer and private citizen (December 23, 1783). When King George III hears that the conquering general has not seized power, he says, "He will be remembered as the greatest man who ever lived." [28 minutes]

  • Going Home (#139)

    Timeline: 1786 Sarah goes to New York to get the story of the fate of the loyalists from Mrs. Radcliffe. Moses helps his brother Cato travel to New York, where Cato leaves for Nova Scotia with Mrs. Radcliffe. James reports on Shays and the discontent of the former soldiers. He also resolves to own and run his own newspaper. Lafayette invites Henri to live with him in France. Ben, accompanied by Sarah's mother, returns from Europe to a triumphant reception in Philadelphia. Historical Content: With the signing of the Treaty of Paris, those loyal to the English King are forced to leave their homes in America. Many slaves move to Canada to avoid being returned to slavery. American soldiers return home, many of them to harsh poverty. The Shays Rebellion and other events make it clear that it's not enough that the United States won the war. Now it badly needs a strong central government if it is to survive as a nation. [28 minutes]

  • We The People (#140)

    Timeline: January 1787 - April 30, 1789 Moses resolves to open a school for free black children. Sarah's father arrives from Ohio to join his family. The dream Sarah had returned to America in search of is fulfilled. Everyone looks forward to their new lives in the United States of America as Benjamin Franklin reminds us that the new Constitution doesn't guarantee happiness, only that you be free to pursue it. Historical Content: America's leaders meet at a convention in Philadelphia and decide to write a radical new Constitution. Benjamin Franklin, in his final moment on the world stage, helps forge the "Great Compromise" on legislative representation. James Madison writes much of the Constitution, the lawful embodiment of the promise of the Revolution (September 17, 1787). It includes the " odious compromise" on slavery that maintains the practice's legality in the United States. George Washington is inaugurated as the first President (April 30, 1789). [28 minutes]

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